Introduccion a robots moviles autonomos

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Roland

SIEGWART Illah R. NOURBAKHSH

Introduction to

Autonomous Mobile Robots

Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots

Intelligent Robotics and Autonomous Agents Ronald C. Arkin, editor Robot Shaping: An Experiment in Behavior Engineering, Marco Dorigo and Marco Colombetti, 1997 Behavior-Based Robotics, Ronald C. Arkin, 1998 Layered Learning in Multiagent Systems: A WinningApproach to Robotic Soccer, Peter Stone, 2000 Evolutionary Robotics: The Biology, Intelligence, and Technology of Self-Organizing Machines, Stefano Nolfi and Dario Floreano, 2000 Reasoning about Rational Agents, Michael Wooldridge, 2000 Introduction to AI Robotics, Robin R. Murphy, 2000 Strategic Negotiation in Multiagent Environments, Sarit Kraus, 2001 Mechanics of Robotic Manipulation, Matthew T.Mason, 2001 Designing Sociable Robots, Cynthia L. Breazeal, 2002 Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots, Roland Siegwart and Illah R. Nourbakhsh, 2004

Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots
Roland Siegwart and Illah R. Nourbakhsh

A Bradford Book The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England

© 2004 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

All rights reserved. No part of thisbook may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher.

This book was set in Times Roman by the authors using Adobe FrameMaker 7.0. Printed and bound in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Siegwart, Roland.Introduction to autonomous mobile robots / Roland Siegwart and Illah Nourbakhsh. p. cm. — (Intelligent robotics and autonomous agents) “A Bradford book.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-262-19502-X (hc : alk. paper) 1. Mobile robots. 2. Autonomous robots. I. Nourbakhsh, Illah Reza, 1970– . II. Title. III. Series.

TJ211.415.S54 2004 629.8´92—dc22

2003059349

To Luzia andmy children Janina, Malin and Yanik who give me their support and freedom to grow every day — RS To my parents Susi and Yvo who opened my eyes — RS To Marti who is my love and my inspiration — IRN To my parents Fatemeh and Mahmoud who let me disassemble and investigate everything in our home — IRN

Slides and exercises that go with this book are available on:

http://www.mobilerobots.org Contents

Acknowledgments

xi

Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 An Overview of the Book Locomotion 2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 Key issues for locomotion 2.2 Legged Mobile Robots 2.2.1 Leg configurations and stability 2.2.2 Examples of legged robot locomotion 2.3 Wheeled Mobile Robots 2.3.1 Wheeled locomotion: the design space 2.3.2 Wheeled locomotion: case studies Mobile RobotKinematics 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Kinematic Models and Constraints 3.2.1 Representing robot position 3.2.2 Forward kinematic models 3.2.3 Wheel kinematic constraints 3.2.4 Robot kinematic constraints 3.2.5 Examples: robot kinematic models and constraints 3.3 Mobile Robot Maneuverability 3.3.1 Degree of mobility 3.3.2 Degree of steerability 3.3.3 Robot maneuverability

xiii 1 1 10 13 13 16 17 18 21 30 3138 47 47 48 48 51 53 61 63 67 67 71 72

2

3

viii

Contents

3.4

3.5 3.6

Mobile Robot Workspace 3.4.1 Degrees of freedom 3.4.2 Holonomic robots 3.4.3 Path and trajectory considerations Beyond Basic Kinematics Motion Control (Kinematic Control) 3.6.1 Open loop control (trajectory-following) 3.6.2 Feedback control

74 74 75 77 80 81 81 82

4

Perception 89 4.1 Sensors forMobile Robots 89 4.1.1 Sensor classification 89 4.1.2 Characterizing sensor performance 92 4.1.3 Wheel/motor sensors 97 4.1.4 Heading sensors 98 4.1.5 Ground-based beacons 101 4.1.6 Active ranging 104 4.1.7 Motion/speed sensors 115 4.1.8 Vision-based sensors 117 4.2 Representing Uncertainty 145 4.2.1 Statistical representation 145 4.2.2 Error propagation: combining uncertain measurements 149 4.3...
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