Japanese particles (tofugu.com)

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JAPANESE PARTICLES CHEAT SHEET

Indicate subjects by coming after them
Meanings: “is, am, are” *One thing to know about is that it’s not pronounced “ha” but pronounced “wa” emphasizes what comesafter it emphasizes what comes before it : I am Koichi : I am Koichi * The first example would be used when you’re introducing yourself to someone, the second one would be more like one of those movieswhere one person has the gun pointed at two identical targets, where they are saying “I am Koichi” and “No, I’m Koichi!” The important (emphasized) part is the I portion, so you’d use . Examples:The Possessive
Meanings: “Apostrophe S” & “of” *Makes something possessive, like saying “my monkey,” “Jenny’s friend,” or “Bobby of Sony (i.e. Sony’s Bobby).” Examples:

Also / Too
Meanings: “also”and “too” - it can also emphasize “any” Examples:

Me too / Me also Bobby also will go to Ikea

My name is is Koichi It’s Bobby’s dog

I didn’t eat anything

The Direct Object
I am a student(where is “am” in this sentence) That student is stupid How it’s used: All it does is shows what the direct object is. Used when you’re directly doing something (the verb) to something (the object).Examples: You are interesting (object) Eat sushi (particle) (verb)

Movement and Time
How it’s used: Used to show what an action is directed to, and also shows destinations, directions, places, andtime. Remember, when you move you use your knees (ni) Examples:

What is it that you want to eat?

Xbox I will buy an X-Box *Not used when you aren’t directly involved or responsible (i.e. “theradio is broken” vs. “I broke the radio” - the second one uses )

I will go to Japan At 3 o’clock I will eat sushi

I like sushi / it is sushi that I like

*Some Movement Verbs:

Emphasizingthe Destination
How it’s used: This is a lot like the particle “ni” but emphasizes the destination. It’s more like “heading towards” than anything else (see examples below) Examples:

Shows Context...
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