Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677)
• The philosophy of Baruch Spinoza is a systematic, logical, rational philosophy developed by him in the seventeenth century in Europe
• It's asystem of ideas built from basic building in which Spinoza tried to answer life's major questions and in which he proposed that "God exists only philosophically."
• He was heavily influenced bythinkers such as Descartes and Euclid and Thomas Hobbes
• Even top thinkers have found Spinoza's "geometrical method" difficult to comprehend.
• His philosophy attracted believers such as AlbertEinstein and much intellectual attention.
Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716)
• Leibniz was the last of the great Rationalists
• contributed heavily to other fields such as mathematics
• Leibniz rejectedCartesian dualism, and denied the existence of a material world
• In Leibniz's view there are infinitely many simple substances, which he called "monads"
• Leibniz developed his theory of monads inresponse to both Descartes and Spinoza
• Monads are the fundamental unit of reality, according to Leibniz, constituting both inanimate and animate things.
• These units of reality represent theuniverse
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
• He developed a distinctive and very influential rationalism of his own, which attempted to synthesise the traditional rationalist and empiricist traditions.
• Kantnamed his branch of epistemology Transcendental Idealism
• Famous work The Critique of Pure Reason
• In it he argued that there were fundamental problems with both rationalist and empiricist dogma
•The existence of God, free will, and the immortality of the human soul. Kant referred to these objects as "The Thing in Itself" and goes on to argue that their status as objects beyond all possibleexperience by definition means we cannot know them
• To the empiricist he argued that while it is correct that experience is fundamentally necessary for human knowledge, reason is necessary for...