Manual de ingles

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  • Publicado : 2 de marzo de 2011
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Gramática
Presente simple:
AFIRMATIVO | NEGATIVO |
S+V (base form)+C | S+Aux (do)+Neg+V (base form)+C |
IYouWeThey | eat | HeSheIt | eats | IYouWeThey | Do not eat | HeSheIt | Does not eat |
INTERROGACIÓN |
Aux (do)+S+V ( base form )+C+? |
Do | IYouWeThey | Eat? | Does | HeSheIt | Eat? |
Excepción en tercera persona se añade una -s final. Cuando el verbo termina en -s, -ss, -sh, -o,-ch, -x se añade a la tercera persona singular la terminación '-es'. Cuando termina en 'y' precedida de consonante cambia la 'y' por 'ies'.
Para la forma negativa e interrogativa se recurre al verbo 'to do' que realiza una función auxiliar. En la tercera persona la forma 'do' cambia a 'does'.
Pasado simple:
AFIRMATIVO | NEGATIVO |
S+V (pasado)+C | S+Aux (did)+Neg+V ( base form )+C |IYouWeThey | studied | HeSheIt | studied | IYouWeThey | did not study | HeSheIt | did not study |
INTERROGACIÓN |
Aux (did)+S+V ( base form )+C+? |
Did | IYouWeThey | study? | Did | HeSheIt | study? |
Nota: |
El pasado simple funciona con el auxiliar 'did' para todas las personas (incluida la tercera persona singular 'he/she/it'). En la forma afirmativa, el auxiliar 'did' no aparece, empleamosen su lugar la terminación 'ed', esta es la forma de pasado para todos los 'Verbos Regulares'. Si termina en -d o -t, se le pone -ed como sílaba aparte; si termina en cualquier otra consonante, se añade también -ed pero sin hacer sílaba aparte; si termina en -e, se le pone sólo –d; una -y final que sigue a cualquier consonante se cambia en - ie más –d.
Futuro simple:
AFIRMATIVO | NEGATIVO |S+Aux (will)+V ( base form )+C | S+Aux (will)+Neg+V ( base form )+C |
IYouWeThey | Will travel | HeSheIt | Will travel | IYouWeThey | Will not travel | HeSheIt | Will not travel |
INTERROGACIÓN |
Aux (will)+S+V ( base form )+C+? |
Will | IYouWeThey | travel? | Will | HeSheIt | travel? |
Nota: |
Presente simple continúo:
AFIRMATIVO | NEGATIVO |
S+ be (pres. Simpl.)+V (ing)+C | S+ be(pres. Simpl.)+Neg+V (ing)+C |
I am walking | HeSheIt | is walking | I am not walking | HeSheIt | is not walking |
YouWeThey | are walking | | | YouWeThey | are not walking | | |
INTERROGACIÓN |
Be (pres. Simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+? |
Am I walking? | Is | HeSheIt | walking? |
Are | YouWeThey | walking? | | | |
Nota: |
Pasado simple continúo:
AFIRMATIVO | NEGATIVO |
S+ be (pasd.Simpl.)+V (ing)+C | S+ be (pasd. Simpl.)+Neg+V (ing)+C |
I was driving | HeSheIt | was driving | I was not driving | HeSheIt | was not driving |
YouWeThey | were driving | | | YouWeThey | were not driving | | |
INTERROGACIÓN |
Be (pasd. Simpl.)+S+V (ing)+C+? |
Was I driving? | Was | HeSheIt | driving? |
Were | YouWeThey | driving? | | | |
Nota: |
Futuro simple continúo:AFIRMATIVO | NEGATIVO |
S+ Aux(will)+ be(base form)+V (ing)+C | S+ Aux(will)+Neg+be(base form)+V (ing)+C |
I will be lending | HeSheIt | Will be lending | I will not be lending | HeSheIt | will not be lending |
YouWeThey | will be lending | | | YouWeThey | will not be lending | | |
INTERROGACIÓN |
Aux (will)+S+be (base form)+V (ing)+C+? |
Will I be lending? | Will | HeSheIt | belending? |
Will | YouWeThey | Be lending? | | | |
Nota: |
Presente perfecto:
AFIRMATIVO | NEGATIVO |
S+ Aux.(have/has)+V (P.p)+C | S+ Aux.(have/has)+Neg+V (P.p)+C |
I have bought | HeSheIt | has bought (he’s) | I have not bought | HeSheIt | has not bought (hasn’t) |
YouWeThey | have bought(you’ve) | | | YouWeThey | have not bought (haven’t) | | |
INTERROGACIÓN |Aux.(have/has)+S+V (P.p)+C+? |
Have I bought? | Has | HeSheIt | bought? |
Have | YouWeThey | bought? | | | |
Nota: |
El presente perfecto, se forma con "to have" a modo de auxiliar y el verbo en participio pasado. En la tercera persona se emplea el "has".
Pasado perfecto:
AFIRMATIVO | NEGATIVO |
S+ Aux.(had)+V (P.p)+C | S+ Aux.(had)+Neg+V (P.p)+C |
I had bought (I’d) | HeSheIt | had bought...
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