Modals and its uses

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Universidad Mesoamericana
Morphology and syntaxis I
Carla José Hernández Jacinto 201211050 PEM en inglés “B”
LABORATORY 3

Summary Chart of Modals andSimilar Expressions |
AUXILIARY | USES | PRESENT/FUTURE | PAST |
May | 1.polite request (only with “I” or “we”)2.formal permission3.50% or less certainty | May we go to the camp?He may take the moneyImay get to the bus station at 9:00 am | I may have got to the bus station at 9:00 am |
Might | 1. 50% or less certainty2.polite request (rare) | I might get to the bus station at 9:00 am | I mighthave got to the bus station at 9:00 am |
should | 1.advisability2.90% certainty (expectation) | I should call my friend today.He should come home earlier. | I should have called my friend today, butI didn’t.He should have come home earlier. |
Ought to | 1.advisability2.90% certainty (expectation) | I ought to sleep tonight.They ought to have nice vacations. | I ought to have slept tonight.Theyought to have had nice vacations. |
Had better | 1.advisability with threat or bad result | You had better call me early or I won’t be able to answer your call. | (past form uncommon) |
Besupposed to | 1.expectation2.unfulfilled expectation | Party is supposed to begin at 3:00 pm | Party was supposed to begin at 3:00 pmBut it began at 4:20 |
Must | 1.strong necessity2.prohibition(negative)3.95% certainty | You must take care of your brother.You must not forget the book.Claudia must be occupied. | (You had to take care of your brother).Claudia must have been occupied. |
AUXILIARY |USES | PRESENT/FUTURE | PAST |
Have to | 1.necessity2.lack of necessity (negative) | I have to finish my homework.I don’t have to finish my homework. | I had to finish my homework.I didn’t have tofinish my homework. |
Have got to | 1.necessity | I have got to go to work today. | I had to go to work today. |
Will | 1.100% certainty2.willingness3.polite request | Mary will finish dinner at...
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