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VFR Communications
Chapter 2 – General Operating Procedures
Arturo Palavecino CESDA (Fundación Rego) Universitat Rovira i Virgili

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
• Index
1. Introduction. 2. Definitions and Abbreviations. 3. Transmitting Technique. 4. Transmission of Letters.

5. Transmission of Numbers.
6. Frequency Readings. 7. Transmission of Time. 8. StandardWords and Phrases. 9. Call Signs.

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
1. Introduction.
Incidents and accidents have occurred on which a misunderstanding on the communications was a contributing factor.
It is then of vital importance the use of the standard phraseology and also the appropriate: Transmission Technique, Phonetic Sounds for Letters and Numbers, Format ofTime, Call Signs, Standard Procedures, etc. Read FOREWORD of ICAO Doc.9432.

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
2. Definitions and Abbreviations.
Definitions and abbreviations will be explain along the course.

See ICAO Doc 9432. Chapter 1.
See Moodle Docs: Definitions Jeppesen and Abbreviations Jeppesen.

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
3.Transmitting Technique (1).
When communicating, some factors should be taken into account to assure that the speech is clear and satisfactorily received. Before transmitting: Listen, check your receiver volume and do not interrupt any other transmission. Microphone: Do not move your head when speaking, maintain an appropriate distance from the microphone.

Voice: Use a normal conversation tone, speakclearly and maintain a constant volume.

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
3. Transmitting Technique (2).
Rate of Speech: About 100 wordS per minute. If information is important or to be copied, speak slower.

Hesitation: Avoid expressions as ”er”, “umm”.
Transmission Technique: Think before transmitting and use this rule: THINK-PRESS-SPEAK-RELEASE. See page 2-1 fromICAO Doc.9432

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
4. Transmission of Letters (1).
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
4. Transmission of Letters (1).

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
4. Transmission of Letters (2).

VFR Communications
C 2 – General OperatingProcedures
4. Transmission of Letters (3).

Some abbreviations need not to be spelled out since due to its common use are well understood. E.g. NDB, VOR, ILS, TACAN, SELCAL, GPS, Q-CODES (QNH, QFE, QDR…).

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
5. Transmission of Numbers (1).
Numbers should be transmitted in English using the following pronunciation. Note that the syllables incapital letters are to be stressed.

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
5. Transmission of Numbers (2).
As a general rule all numbers are to be transmitted separately.

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
5. Transmission of Numbers (3).

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
5. Transmission of Numbers (4).
The exception are numbersrelated with, altitude, cloud height, visibility and RVR, which can be transmitted using whole “hundreds” an “thousands”. Combinations of thousands and hundreds shall be done by transmitting each digit in the number of thousands followed by the word THOUSAND followed by the number of hundreds followed by the word HUNDRED.

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
5. Transmissionof Numbers (5).

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
6. Frequency Readings (1).
When transmitting a frequency all six digits must be transmitted except if the fifth and the sixth digit ends by a zero.

VFR Communications
C 2 – General Operating Procedures
6. Frequency Readings (2).
In airspace where all VHF channels are separated by 25kHz, it is only necessary to...
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