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ARTICLE IN PRESS

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (2007) 1966–2005 www.elsevier.com/locate/rser

Agricultural residues as precursors for activated carbon production—A review
O. Ioannidou, A. ZabaniotouÃ
Chemical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Un. Box 455, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece Received 24 February 2006; accepted 24 March 2006

Abstract Areview of the production of activated carbons from agricultural residues is presented. The effects of various process parameters on the pyrolysis stage are reviewed. Influences of activating conditions, physical and chemical, on the active carbon properties are discussed. Under certain process conditions several active carbons with BET surface areas, ranging between 250 and 2410 m2/g and pore volumesof 0.022 and 91.4 cm3/g, have been produced. A comparison in characteristics and uses of activated carbons from agricultural residues with those issued from tires, and commercial carbons, have been made. A review is carried out of the reaction kinetic modelling, applied to pyrolysis of agricultural wastes and activation of their pyrolytic char. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Activated carbons; Agricultural wastes; Pyrolysis; Activation; Modelling

Contents 1. 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1967 Experimental conditions for carbon production from agricultural wastes . . . . . . . . . . 1969 2.1. Pyrolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1969 2.2. Activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 2.2.1. Physical activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1975 2.2.2. Chemical activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1976 2.2.3. Steampyrolysis/activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1977

ÃCorresponding author. Tel.: 2310 99 62 74; fax: 2310 99 62 09.

E-mail address: sonia@cheng.auth.gr (A. Zabaniotou). 1364-0321/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2006.03.013

ARTICLE IN PRESS
O. Ioannidou, A. Zabaniotou / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews11 (2007) 1966–2005 1967

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Properties and characteristics of agricultural residues issued active carbons. . . . . . . . . 1978 3.1. Surface area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978 3.2. Pore size and volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978 Applicationsand uses of agricultural based active carbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981 4.1. In gas phase adsorption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1981 4.2. In liquid phase adsorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982 4.3. Active carbon for organics-pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982 4.4. Comparisons of active carbons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1983 Review of the activated carbon formation from agricultural residues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1984 5.1. Kinetic models for pyrolysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1984 5.1.1. Models considering kinetic equations .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985 5.1.2. ASEM (semi-empirical model) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1994 5.1.3. Modelling coupling kinetics and transport phenomena in a single biomass particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1995 5.2. Kinetic models for activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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