Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones
The common names of aldehydes are derived from the names of the corresponding carboxylic by replacing –ic acid by –aldehyde. The CHO group attached to a cyclecalled -carbaldehyde. The numbering of the cycle is taking place locator 1 to carbon cycle that contains the aldehyde group.
The IUPAC names of aldehydes follow the usual pattern. The longest chaincarrying the -CHO group is considered the parent structure and is named by replacing the -e of the corresponding alkane by –al. When the chain contains two aldehyde functions is used the suffix –dial.The position of a substituent is indicated by a number, the carbonyl carbon always being considered as C-1. Here, as with the carboxylic acids, we notice that C-2 of the IUPAC name corresponds toalpha of the common name.
H – C = O
CH3 C = O
CH3 CH2C = O
C = O
CH2C = OPhenylacetaldehyde
C = O
CH3CH2CH2CHC = O
O=CCH2CH2CH2CHC = O
The simplestaliphatic ketone has the common name of acetone. For most other aliphatic ketones we name the two groups that are attached to carbonyl carbon, and follow these names by the word ketone. A ketone inwhich the carbonyl group is attached to a benzene ring is named as a -phenone.
According to the IUPAC system, the longest chain carrying the carbonyl group is considered the parent structure, and isnamed by replacing the –e of the corresponding alkane with –one. The positions of various grouse are indicated by numbers, the carbonyl carbon being given the lowest possible number.
Methyl Ethyl ketone
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