Perú mining

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Mining in Peru: between the transformation of conflicts and the programmatic challenge
by José De Echave C.

What instruments do we have to approach the complexity of the relationships between mining, communities and development? Which are the strategies that have been adopted? Current approaches in the debate

Diagnosis: In the last decade, social conflicts in the miningsector have been centred in the relationship between mining companies and the surrounding population. In Peru, that type of conflicts is not new. Conflicts are not exclusive to Peru: they are global conflicts that have also been observed in the majority of mining countries of the world.

¿What are the sources of these conflicts? First: The new mining boom observed in Latin America during thelast decade. Each time that mining expands at an accelerated pace, it produces struggles over the control of resources on which its development relies.

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1990
Share of Latin American investments in world mining investments
América Latina 12%

- La inversión minera se traslada al Sur

Mining investments 1995

Pacifico 10%

Otros 7%

America Latina 28%

Africa 12% NorteAmerica 23% Australia 20%

Mining Investments 2000

Pacifico 12%

Otros 9%

America Latina 33%

Africa 12% Norte America 26%

Australia 8%

Peru is an excellent example of what has happened in the mining sector in the last decade. The legal framework was modified. It is argued that Peru is a mining country (percentage of exports, share of GDP). Some economic indicators of the miningsector.....

Mining exports
(millions of US dollars)
Year Titulados 1991 1,534 1992 1,819 1994 1970 1996 2,654 1998 2,746 2000 3,220 2002 3,809 2004 6,850 2005 8,419 2006 14,715

From: Ministerio de Energía y Minas, Base Plan for Mining

Evolución de las Exportaciones Mineras (US$ millones)
14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006

Note: apoint to highlight:
The territorial expansion of mining…

Mining rights with titles between 1991-2000
(thousands of hectares)
Year Titulados 1991 2,258 1992 2258 1993 2,371 1994 6,151 1995 8,758 1996 12,110 1997 15,597 1998 14,825 1999 13188 2000 11,700

From: Ministerio de Energía y Minas, Plan Referencial de Minería

Each time that mining expands at accelerated pace, it producesstruggles over the control of resources on which its development relies. Natural resources: land, water, etc.

COMMUNITIES WHOSE LANDS ARE AFFECTED BY MINERAL EXPANSION

55%

3126 Communities

PERCENTAGE OF THE PERUVIAN TERRITORY UNDER MINING USE

13%

Location of Mining Rights in Peru (hectares) At December 1999 Departament Total Extension (Ha) 2089600 1573400 2132800 3480200 35041002479500 14700 4381500 4441000 6334500 2213100 3402300 7199900 1607600 2532000 1423100 7189200 3589100 3772200 5125300 3924900 8518300 467100 36885200 10241100 Mining rights (Ha) 1155331 676033 855844 1338733 1108007 729843 3842 1125155 1103445 1532947 422314 640451 1314614 275285 405742 197252 884751 427605 437407 504641 233378 158509 2198 87205 17404 15.667.436

Cajamarca Cusco HuancavelicaLima Ayacucho Junín Callao (Lima) Ancash Apurimac Arequipa Ica Piura La Libertad Tacna Huanuco San Martín Puno Pasco Moquegua Amazonas Madre De Dios Lambayeque Tumbes Loreto Ucayali Fuera Del Perú TOTAL 128.521.700 100,0%

% 7,4% 4,3% 5,5% 8,5% 7,1% 4,7% 0,0% 7,2% 7,0% 9,8% 2,7% 4,1% 8,4% 1,8% 2,6% 1,3% 5,6% 2,7% 2,8% 3,2% 1,5% 1,0% 0,0% 0,6% 0,1%

% 55,29 42,97 40,13 38,47 31,62 29,44 26,1425,68 24,85 24,20 19,08 18,82 18,26 17,12 16,02 13,86 12,31 11,91 11,60 9,85 5,95 1,86 0,47 0,24 0,17 12,19

“A discussion on rural development and territory cannot avoid the fact that the development of extractive industries is central”. Mining expansion is characterized by “several linked domains of change whose interactions in particular sites have restructured and indeed produced new rural...
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