Productos naturales

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08/11/2011

PRODUCTOS NATURALES EN LAS CIENCIAS FARMACÉUTICAS
PROF. KARIN JÜRGENS QFAR 110

HISTORIA
Papiro de Ebers (1550 a.C.): forma parte del conocimiento de los egipcios sobre fisiología humana, a ac a ed c a. farmacia y medicina. Hipócrates (siglo IV y III a.C.): griego, padre de la medicina moderna.

Dioscórides (4090 a.C.): Materia Médica, describió aprox. 600 plantas medicinales.Molecular Aspects of Medicine 27 (2006) 1–93 Review

Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and d d drugs of t f tomorrow
Ameenah Gurib-Fakim Medicina china Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius

Medicina mapuche

Abstract
Plants have provided man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines.Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesserknown systems of medicines are the African and Australian, Central and South American amongst others. The search for new molecules, nowadays, has taken a slightlydifferent route where the science of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used as guide to lead the chemist towards different sources and classes of compounds. It is in this context that the flora of the tropics by virtue of its diversity has a significant role to play in being able to provide new leads. Nonetheless the issue of sovereignty and property rights should also be addressed in linewith the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD). This paper highlights the above, provides an overview of the classes of molecules present in plants and gives some examples of the types of molecules and secondary metabolites that have led to the development of these pharmacologically active extracts. The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functionalfoods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications.

3.1. Ethnobotany The term Ethnobotany was first used by Harshberger in 1896. He defined it as a study of plants used by primitive and aboriginal people. The term was broadened by Robbins, Harrington and Freire-Marreco, in 1916 and they suggested that the scienceof ethnobotany should include the investigation and evaluation of the y g knowledge of all phases of life amongst primitive societies and of the effects of the vegetal environment upon the life customs, beliefs and history of these tribal peoples. Twenty-five years later, Jones (1941) advanced a more concise definition: ‘‘The study of the interrelationships of primitive men and plants’’. Schultesin 1967, expanded this to include the relationships between man and his ambient vegetation.

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Abstract Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100 (2005) 50–52 Perspective paper Ethnopharmacology and natural product drug discovery remains a significant hope in the current target-rich, lead-poor scenario. Many modern drugs have origin in traditional medicine and ethnopharmacology.Traditional Indian Medicine – Ayurveda has a long history and is one of the great living traditions. Considerable research on pharmacognosy, chemistry, pharmacology and clinical therapeutics has been carried out on A Ayurvedic medicinal plants. S Several preclinical and clinical i d di di i l l l li i l d li i l studies have examined cytoprotective, immunomodulatory and immunoadjuvant potential ofAyurvedic medicines. The ethnopharmacology knowledge, its holistic and systems approach supported by experiential base can serve as an innovative and powerful discovery engine for newer, safer and affordable medicines.

Ethnopharmacology and drug discovery
Bhushan Patwardhan Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India

FARMACOGNOSIA
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