Identity, Immigration & Democracy
Electoral Systems Today
Adeed Dawisha & Larry Diamond Andrew Reynolds Jih-wen Lin Richard Soudriette & Andrew Ellis Leon Aron on the Soviet Collapse Daniel Chirot on C^ote d’Ivoire Leila Alieva on Azerbaijan’s Elections Scott Radnitz on Kyrgyzstan Miguel Angel Rodríguez/Fabrice Lehoucq on Costa RicaMarc F. Plattner on Democracy’s Story
New Threats to Freedom
Carl Gershman & Michael Allen Ivan Krastev
IDENTITY, IMMIGRATION, AND LIBERAL DEMOCRACY
Francis Fukuyama, Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, delivered the 2005 Seymour Martin Lipset Lecture on Democracy in the World(see box on p. 8). His most recent book is America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. eymour Martin Lipset was a colleague of mine at George Mason University, and for the years I was there we taught a course together on comparative politics that was originally based on his book American Exceptionalism. I learned an extraordinary amount from talking to Lipset,reading his books, and listening to his lectures, and I appreciate the opportunity to apply some of his thinking to our current situation. Marty Lipset is, of course, a great student of liberal democracy. As the twenty-first century unfolds, it seems unfortunately clear that liberal democracy continues to face multiple challenges. One challenge particularly apparent to Americans since the attacks ofSeptember 11 is that of jihadist terrorism. The radical Islamist ideology motivating such terrorism is profoundly antiliberal and, when combined with the destructive possibilities of modern technology, poses a tremendous security challenge. Most Americans have tended to regard the jihadist problem as something that has been bred and nurtured in profoundly dysfunctional areas of the world like SaudiArabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and other parts of the Middle East. Since jihadism is something that is happening “over there,” the solution lies either in walling off the United States and other target countries, or else, as the Bush administration would have it, going over there to fix the problem at its root by deposing dictators and promoting democracy. There is no doubt, of course, that theMuslim world is dysfunctional in many ways, and that Saudi Arabia and Pakistan have been the sources of an extremist and hateful ideology. I would contend, however, that the more serious longer-term challenge facing liberal democracies toJournal of Democracy Volume 17, Number 2 April 2006 © 2006 National Endowment for Democracy and The Johns Hopkins University Press
day concerns the integration of immigrant minorities—particularly those from Muslim countries—as citizens of pluralistic democracies. Culturally diverse immigrants create problems for all countries, yet Europe has become and will continue to be a critical breeding ground and battlefront in the struggle between radical Islamism and liberal democracy. This is because radical Islamism itselfdoes not come out of traditional Muslim societies, but rather is a manifestation of modern identity politics, a byproduct of the modernization process itself. In this respect, it is unfortunately a familiar challenge, one that we have seen earlier in the extremist politics of the twentieth century. There have been signs of trouble across Europe: the Madrid bombings of 11 March 2004, the murder ofDutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh by Mohammed Bouyeri in Amsterdam on 2 November 2004, the London bombings of 7 July 2005, and the riots that consumed the French banlieues in November 2005.1 Muslims constitute 7 to 8 percent of the population in France and upwards of 6 percent in the Netherlands, and in cities like Rotterdam they come close to being a majority (see Table). Even with no new net...