Repaso de historia contemporanea

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  • Publicado : 4 de septiembre de 2010
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1. Definition and elements of a civilization,
A complex, highly organized social order.
Elements:
- Geographic framework, location, place.
- Social structure, organization.
- Economy.
- Job specialization, trades.
- Complex religions, beliefs.
- History, writing.
- Culture, arts and architecture.
- Organized government, politics.
- Technological innovation.
2. The 7 elements of amodern state
o Globalization: Process by which different nations become integrated into a global
network.
o Secularism: Separation of church and state.
o Neoliberalism: “free market” capitalism.
Laissez Faire: economic system that says that state should not interfere in economic
matters, opposed to tariffs. Means in French “let them do”. It was supported by Adam
Smith; he said it was the bestfor the society. It is also called Free Market.
o Tolerance: Tolerance of different religions, cultures, customs, etc.
o Democracy: people are represented by others chosen by the people.
o Technological and scientific advances
o Human rights: Also called natural rights, they are life, liberty and property.
3. What makes history a science?
History is a science because of the methodology ituses to build historic knowledge; it
presents a problem, it formulates hypotheses, selects a method of study, determines
which source to use, and finally, adds something new to our understanding.
4. Types of historic sources (primary, secondary) and the types of information they
give us
Primary: original artifacts and documents created in the historic moment, requires to be
interpreted byhistorians. Can be artifacts, recordings, graphic/audiovisual artifacts or
documents.
Secondary: written documents based on primary sources, much later in time, written
about events written in primary sources. Can be biographies, history books, etc.
5. Difference between laissez faire and mercantilism
Mercantilism: Economic system in which a country regulates the entire national
economy throughpolicies. Designed to secure a favorable balance of trade (a country
should export more than it imports) and development of agriculture and manufacturers.
Opposed by Adam Smith.
Laissez faire: Economic system that says that state should not interfere in economic
matters, opposed to tariffs. Means in French “let them do”. It was supported by Adam
Smith; he said it was the best for the society.It is also called Free Market.
6. Difference between the scientific revolution and the industrial revolution
In the scientific revolution, it started a new way of thinking, new thinkers and
discoveries. In the industrial revolution, there were new inventions and technological
advances, production, transportation and communication.
Scientific Revolution: Mid 1500s- 1600s. Started a new way ofthinking about the
physical world. Used a new scientific method.
Industrial Revolution: 1750- 1850. England. A time of technological, social, economic,
and cultural changes.
7. Definitions of…
Feudalism: A social system based on personal ownership of resources and personal
fealty between a suzerain (lord) and a vassal (subject).
Humanism: emphasis in a person’s capacity for self-realizationthrough reason.
Mercantilism: economic theory that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent
in its supply of capital. Encouraging exports, discouraging imports.
Laissez-Faire: policy that government should not interfere in commercial affairs.
Allowing the events take their own course.
Absolutism: 1600s- 1700s. Concentration of power in one person. Monarchs who
claimed theyreceived their power by the “divine right” of god.
Protestant reformation: a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an
attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant
churches.
Enlightenment: A philosophical movement of the 17th and 18th century. Believed that
through reason they could fix society, emphasized in individual freedoms and limited...
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