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Standard Terminology Relating to
Wear and Erosion1
This standard is issued under the ﬁxed designation G 40; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in thecase of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
1. Scope 1.1 The terms and their deﬁnitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation,impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or ﬂuids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical ﬁelds as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from thiscollection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and deﬁnitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as deﬁned herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is toencourage uniformity and accuracy in the description of test methods and devices and in the reporting of test results in relation to wear and erosion.
NOTE 1—All terms are listed alphabetically. When a subsidiary term is deﬁned in conjunction with the deﬁnition of a more generic term, an alphabetically-listed cross-reference is provided.
2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: C 242Terminology of Ceramic Whitewares and Related Products2 3. Terminology abrasive wear, n—wear due to hard particles or hard protuberances forced against and moving along a solid surface. abrasion-corrosion, n—a synergistic process involving both abrasive wear and corrosion in which each of these processes is affected by the simultaneous action of the other and, in many cases, is thereby accelerated.
1 Thisterminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee G-2 on Wear and Erosion and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee G02.91 on Terminology and Deﬁnitions. Current edition approved April 10, 1999. Published June 1999. Originally published as G 40 – 73. Last previous edition G 40 – 98b. 2 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 15.02.
abrasivity, n—the ability of a material or substance tocause abrasive wear. absolute impact velocity— See impact velocity. acceleration period, n— in cavitation and liquid impingement erosion, the stage following the incubation period during which the erosion rate increases from near zero to a maximum value. (See also erosion rate-time pattern.) accumulation period, n— in cavitation and liquid impingement erosion, a less-preferred term foracceleration period. adhesive wear, n—wear due to localized bonding between contacting solid surfaces leading to material transfer between the two surfaces or loss from either surface. angle of attack, n— in impingement erosion, the angle between the direction of motion of an impinging liquid or solid particle and the tangent to the surface at the point of impact. angle of incidence, n— in impingementerosion, the angle between the direction of motion of an impinging liquid or solid particle and the normal to the surface at the point of impact. apparent area of contact, n—in tribology, the area of contact between two solid surfaces deﬁned by the boundaries of their macroscopic interface. (Contrast with real area of contact.) asperity, n—in tribology, a protuberance in the small-scale topographical...