Technical proyect tl1

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UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS OF GUATEMALA
ENGINEERING FACULTY
SCIENCE SCHOOL
TECHNICAL ENGLISH

TOPOGRAPHY


Teacher: José Pineda Section: M
INDEX
INTRODUCTION 3
OBJECTIVES 4
 General Objective 4
 Specific Objective 4
TOPOGRAPHY 5
THEODOLITE 5
HISTORY 5
THEODOLITE 6
THEODOLITE COMPONENTS 6
TYPES OF THEODOLITES 6
Repeating Theodolite 6
 Direction Theodolites 7
COMPARISON OF THEODOLITE AND TOTAL STATION 7
 Theodolite 7
 Total Station 7
THE FACTS 8
FEATURES 8
USE OF THE THEODOLITE 9
CARE OF THE INSTRUMENT 9
THE CONTROLS 9
SETTING UP THEODOLITE 10
THEODOLITE LEVEL 10
ZERO THE SCALES 11
ALIGN ON A REFERENCE NORTH 12
TO TAKE A MEASUREMENT 12
USE THE MEASUREMENT. 13
ESSENTIAL PARTSOF A THEODOLITE 14
CONCLUSION 15
ANNEXES 16
RECOMMENDATIONS 18
BIBLIOGRAPHY 19

INTRODUCTION

Topography is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those of planets, moons, and asteroids, It is also the description of such surface shapes and features (especially their depiction in maps). Topography need an important instrument of measure is the Theodolite.

A theodolite is aninstrument used in survey testing and in archaeology to measure horizontal and vertical angles. Typically a theodolite has a small telescope that is attached to devices that measure angles and has a variety of moving parts. Because theodolites tend to be quite heavy they are usually fixed on a base that is rotated on a tripod. There are several types of theodolites but the most common can becategorized into three types.

OBJECTIVES
* General Objective
1. The Reader of this Document, know about ¿what Theodolite is?

* Specific Objective
1. Know the parts of the Theodolite.
2. ¿Where use the Theodolite?
3. Have an Idea about how can use the Theodolite.

TOPOGRAPHY
Topography is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those of planets, moons,and asteroids. It is also the description of such surface shapes and features (especially their depiction in maps).
In a broader sense, topography is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also vegetative and human-made features, and even local history and culture. This meaning is less common in America, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography"synonymous with relief. The older sense of topography as the study of place still has currency in Europe.
For the purposes of this article, topography specifically involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. This is also known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation datain electronic form. It is often considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour, Hypsometric tints, and relief shading.

THEODOLITE
HISTORY
People have been measuring angles for construction purposes for many centuries. Egyptians used groma, an early version of a theodolite, to help build the pyramids. Furthermore, thereare also records that indicate that the Romans used tools such as dioptra (circular plate that marked angles), for similar purposes. In 1571, Leonard Digges came up with a device which more closely resembled an early theodolite and called it theodolitus. It was a divided circle and square with a compass in the center, according to "Brief History of Turning Angles" at noaa.gov, but it lacked atelescope (found in modern versions).
The telescope mounted on top of the measuring device came into being by the mid 1700s. The device also had a horizontal circle with a vertical semi-circle. Early theodolites were works of art; they were hand made out of brass and the angles were scribed by hand. They did, however, have a significant margin for error because they were only as accurate as the...
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