Tesis de ensayos no destructivos

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Designation: E165 – 09

Standard Practice for

Liquid Penetrant Examination for General Industry1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation E165; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (´)indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 1.1 This practice2 covers procedures for penetrant examination of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process,final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process recommended or required byindividual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant inspection is strongly recommended. All areas of this practice may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineeringorganization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. 1.2.3 For use in the organization of facilities and personnel concerned with liquid penetrant testing. 1.3 This practice does not indicate or suggest criteria for evaluation of the indications obtained by penetrant testing. It should be pointed out, however, that after indications have been found, theymust be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. For this purpose there must be a separate code, standard, or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. SI units are provided for information only. 1.5 This standard doesnot purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the

responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards:3 D129 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (General Bomb Method) E516 Practicefor Testing Thermal Conductivity Detectors Used in Gas Chromatography D808 Test Method for Chlorine in New and Used Petroleum Products (Bomb Method) D1193 Specification for Reagent Water D1552 Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products (High-Temperature Method) D4327 Test Method for Anions in Water by Chemically Suppressed Ion Chromatography E433 Reference Photographs for Liquid PenetrantInspection E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing E1208 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Lipophilic Post-Emulsification Process E1209 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Water-Washable Process E1210 Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Hydrophilic Post-Emulsification Process E1219 Practice for FluorescentLiquid Penetrant Testing Using the Solvent-Removable Process E1220 Practice for Visible Penetrant Testing Using SolventRemovable Process E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations E1417 Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing E1418 Practice for Visible Penetrant Testing Using the Water-Washable Process 2.2 ASNT Document: 4 SNT-TC-1A Recommended Practice for Nondestructive Testing Personnel...
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