Cuando queremos comunicar o informar de lo que otra persona ha dicho, hay dos maneras de hacerlo: utilizando el estilo directo o el estilo indirecto.
Direct Speech (El estilo directo)
Cuando queremos informar exactamente lo que otra persona ha dicho, utilizamos el estilo directo. Con este estilo lo que la persona ha dicho se colocaentre comillas y deberá ser palabra por palabra.
"I am going to London next week," she said.("Voy a Londres la semana que viene," ella dijo.)
"Do you have a pen I could borrow," he asked. ("Tienes un bolígrafo que puedas prestarme," él preguntó.)
Alice said, "I love to dance." (Alice dijo, "Me encanta bailar.")
Chris asked, "Would youlike to have dinner with me tomorrow night?" (Chris preguntó, "Te gustaría cenar conmigo mañana por la noche?")
Reported Speech (El estilo indirecto)
El estilo indirecto, a diferencia del estilo directo, no utiliza las comillas y no necesita ser palabra por palabra. En general, cuando se usa el estilo indirecto, el tiempo verbal cambia. A continuación tienes un explicación de los cambios quesufren los tiempos verbales.
A veces se usa "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha dicho la otra persona. Por otro lado, en las frases interrogativas se puede usar "if" o "whether".
Direct Speech | Reported Speech |
Present Simple | Past Simple |
"He's American" she said. | She said he was American. |
"I'm happy to see you," Mary said. | Mary said that she washappy to see me. |
He asked, "Are you busy tonight?" | He asked me if I was busy tonight. |
Present Continuous | Past Continuous |
"Dan is living in San Francisco," she said. | She said Dan was living in San Francisco. |
He said, "I'm making dinner." | He told me that he was making dinner. |
"Why are you working so hard?" they asked. | They asked me why I was working so hard. |
PastSimple | Past Perfect Simple |
"We went to the movies last night," he said. | He told me they had gone to the movies last night. |
Greg said, "I didn't go to work yesterday." | Greg said that he hadn't gone to work yesterday. |
"Did you buy a new car?" she asked. | She asked me if I had bought a new car. |
Past Continuous | Past Perfect Continuous |
"I was working late last night," Vickisaid. | Vicki told me she'd been working last night. |
They said, "We weren't waiting long." | They said that they hadn't been waiting long. |
He asked, "Were you sleeping when I called?" | He asked if I'd been sleeping when he called. |
Present Perfect Simple | Past Perfect Simple |
Heather said, "I've already eaten." | Heather told me that she'd already eaten. |
"We haven't been toChina," they said. | They said they hadn't been to China. |
"Have you worked here before?" I asked. | I asked her whether she'd worked there before. |
Present Perfect Continuous | Past Perfect Continuous |
"I've been studying English for two years," he said. | He said he'd been studying English for two years. |
Steve said, "We've been dating for over a year now." | Steve told me that they'dbeen dating for over a year. |
"Have you been waiting long?" they asked. | They asked whether I'd been waiting long. |
Past Perfect Simple | Past Perfect Simple (*NO CHANGE) |
"I'd been to Chicago before for work," he said. | He said that he'd been to Chicago before for work. |
Past Perfect Continuous | Past Perfect Continuous (*NO CHANGE) |
She said, "I'd been dancing for years beforethe accident." | She said she'd been dancing for years before the accident. |
Nota: Cuando hablamos de algo que no ha cambiado (todavía es verdad) o que es en el futuro, no tenemos que cambiar el tiempo verbal.
* "I'm 30 years old," she said. → She said she is 30 years old.
* Dave said, "Kelly is sick." → Dave said Kelly is sick.
* "We are going to Tokyo next week,"...