BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER
Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
1-1C Thermodynamics deals with the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another. Heat transfer, on the other hand, deals with the rate of heat transfer as well as the temperature distribution within the system at a specified time.
1-2C (a) The driving force for heattransfer is the temperature difference. (b) The driving force for electric current flow is the electric potential difference (voltage). (a) The driving force for fluid flow is the pressure difference.
1-3C The caloric theory is based on the assumption that heat is a fluid-like substance called the "caloric" which is a massless, colorless, odorless substance. It was abandoned in the middle of thenineteenth century after it was shown that there is no such thing as the caloric.
1-4C The rating problems deal with the determination of the heat transfer rate for an existing system at a specified temperature difference. The sizing problems deal with the determination of the size of a system in order to transfer heat at a specified rate for a specified temperature difference.
1-5C Theexperimental approach (testing and taking measurements) has the advantage of dealing with the actual physical system, and getting a physical value within the limits of experimental error. However, this approach is expensive, time consuming, and often impractical. The analytical approach (analysis or calculations) has the advantage that it is fast and inexpensive, but the results obtained are subjectto the accuracy of the assumptions and idealizations made in the analysis.
1-6C Modeling makes it possible to predict the course of an event before it actually occurs, or to study various aspects of an event mathematically without actually running expensive and time-consuming experiments. When preparing a mathematical model, all the variables that affect the phenomena are identified,reasonable assumptions and approximations are made, and the interdependence of these variables are studied. The relevant physical laws and principles are invoked, and the problem is formulated mathematically. Finally, the problem is solved using an appropriate approach, and the results are interpreted.
1-7C The right choice between a crude and complex model is usually the simplest model which yieldsadequate results. Preparing very accurate but complex models is not necessarily a better choice since such models are not much use to an analyst if they are very difficult and time consuming to solve. At the minimum, the model should reflect the essential features of the physical problem it represents.
Heat and Other Forms of Energy
1-8C The rate of heat transfer per unit surface area iscalled heat flux . It is related to the rate of heat transfer by .
1-9C Energy can be transferred by heat, work, and mass. An energy transfer is heat transfer when its driving force is temperature difference.
1-10C Thermal energy is the sensible and latent forms of internal energy, and it is referred to as heat in daily life.
1-11C For the constant pressure case. This is because the heattransfer to an ideal gas is mCpT at constant pressure and mCpT at constant volume, and Cp is always greater than Cv.
1-12 A cylindrical resistor on a circuit board dissipates 0.6 W of power. The amount of heat dissipated in 24 h, the heat flux, and the fraction of heat dissipated from the top and bottom surfaces are to be determined.
Assumptions Heat is transferred uniformlyfrom all surfaces.
Analysis (a) The amount of heat this resistor dissipates during a 24-hour period is
(since 1 Wh = 3600 Ws = 3.6 kJ)
(b) The heat flux on the surface of the resistor is
(c) Assuming the heat transfer coefficient to be uniform, heat transfer is proportional to the surface area. Then the fraction of heat dissipated from the top and bottom surfaces of...