In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized cable designed to carry alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with afrequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account. Transmission lines are used for purposes such as connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, distributing cabletelevision signals, and computer network connections.
Ordinary electrical cables suffice to carry low frequency AC, such as mains power, which reverses direction 100 to 120 times persecond (cycling 50 to 60 times per second). However, they cannot be used to carry currents in the radio frequency range or higher, which reverse direction millions to billions of times per second,because the energy tends to radiate off the cable as radio waves, causing power losses. Radio frequency currents also tend to reflect from discontinuities in the cable such as connectors, and travel backdown the cable toward the source. These reflections act as bottlenecks, preventing the power from reaching the destination. Transmission lines use specialized construction such as precise conductordimensions and spacing, and impedance matching, to carry electromagnetic signals with minimal reflections and power losses. Types of transmission line include ladder line, coaxial cable, dielectric slabs,stripline, optical fiber, and waveguides. The higher the frequency, the shorter are the waves in a transmission medium. Transmission lines must be used when the frequency is high enough that thewavelength of the waves begins to approach the length of the cable used. To conduct energy at frequencies above the radio range, such as millimeter waves, infrared, and light, the waves become muchsmaller than the dimensions of the structures used to guide them, so transmission line techniques become inadequate and the methods of optics are used.
The theory of sound wave propagation is very...