Resumen de History Mock 2010
Chapter 4: The peace treaties after the First World War.
The Paris Peace Conference.
It was a spectacular occasion as a momentous event. It was signed on 28 June 1919. When the terms were announced, the Germans complaint that it was too unfair.
The mood in 1919.
When the leaders of Britain (Lloyd George), France (Clemenceau), and the USA (Wilson) arrived atParis to draw up a Treaty, they were under pressure to deal severely with Germany. France and Britain felt it had to be punished for starting the war, as well as paying for the damage and destruction caused by the war.
Except the USA, every country that had fought in the war was exhausted, their economy was in a bad state, and 9 million had died. Civilians had suffered shortages of food andmedicine. Villages had been devastated.
Although no fighting had taken place in Britain, the huge casualties had left their mark in public opinion. They also wanted to treat Germany harshly when it became public how Germany had treated Russia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The bitterness and hatred remained.
The aims of the leaders at the Paris Peace Conference.
There was a disagreement aboutwhat to do with Germany:
• Some felt the aim was to punish Germany.
• Others that they should cripple Germany so that it wouldn’t start another war.
• Others that they should reward the winning countries.
• Others that they should establish a just and lasting peace.
Georges Clemenceau (France)
➢ France had suffered enormous damage to its land,industry and people and self-confidence. Germany seemed to many French people as powerful and threatening as ever.
➢ Felt threatened by Germany.
➢ Saw the Treaty as an opportunity to cripple Germany so that it could not attack France again.
➢ Was a realist.
➢ He demanded a treaty that would weaken Germany as much as possible.
Woodrow Wilson (USA)
➢ He was an idealist.➢ Wanted to build a better and more peaceful world from the ruins of the Great War.
➢ Germany shouldn’t be punished too harshly because someday it would recover and want revenge.
➢ Wanted to strengthen democracy in the defeated nation so that its people would not let its soldiers cause another war.
➢ Nations should cooperate to achieve world peace. In January 1918 he presentedhis 14 points, the fourteenth was a League of Nations.
➢ Believed in self-determination and wanted the different Eastern Europe peoples to rule themselves instead of forming part of Austria-Hungary’s empire.
Many British and French people did not agree with the 14 points because they seemed impractical, like self-determination, it would be very hard for peoples of eastern Europe to rulethemselves since they were scattered along many different countries.
David Lloyd George (Great Britain)
➢ Was in the middle ground between the other two.
➢ Wanted Germany to be justly punished but not too harshly.
➢ Wanted Germany to loose its navy and its colonies since they threatened the British Empire.
➢ He did not want Germany to seek revenge and possibly start another war.➢ Wanted to start trading with Germany again since it meant jobs for the British people.
➢ Had great pressures back home for a harsh treaty.
Disagreements and compromises
It was clear that the objectives of the three wouldn’t be reached. Clemenceau clashed with Wilson in many aspects. The USA had practically not suffered, so it was generous with Germany. But it had to give way withregards to the coalfields and the Rhineland. Lloyd George didn’t agree either with Clemenceau, as the first didn’t want to treat Germany too harshly. Wilson didn’t agree either with Lloyd George, as the second didn’t like the 2nd point of the fourteen points, allowing all nations access to the seas.
The Treaty of Versailles.
None of the Big Three was happy with the terms. This can be...
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