Information required for commercially available products on • analytical data on distribution and concentrations of all component steviol glycosides, including those that are not identified in these tentative specifications • method of analysis for the determination of all component steviol glycosides, including those that are not identified in these tentativespecifications • the nature and concentration of the non-steviol glycosides fractions • the quantities of residual solvents from purification steps of the manufacturing process • the hydrolytic stability of the steviol glycosides in acidic foods and beverages New tentative specifications prepared at the 63rd JECFA (2004), published in FNP 52 Add 12 (2004). A temporary ADI of 0-2 mg/kg bw (expressedas steviol) was established at the 63rd JECFA (2004).
Steviol glycosides are obtained by extracting leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni with hot water followed by solvent purification of the water-soluble extract. Ion exchange resins may also be used during the purification process. Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the principal steviol glycosides of the specified material.Rebaudioside C and dulcoside A are secondary steviol glycosides. Other steviol glycosides may also be present. The following are the chemical names for the principal and secondary steviol glycosides: Stevioside: 13-[(2-O-β–D-glucopyranosyl-β–D-glucopyranosyl) oxy] kaur16-en-18-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester Rebaudioside A: 13-[(2-O-β –D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β–D-glucopyranosyl-β D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]kaur-16-en-18-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester Rebaudioside C: 13-[(2-O-α–L-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-β–D-glucopyranosylβ-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] kaur-16-en-18-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester Dulcoside A: 13-[2-O-α–L-rhamnopyranosyl-β–D-glucopyranosyl]oxy] kaur-16-en-18-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester
The following are the C.A.S. numbers for the principal andsecondary steviol glycosides: Stevioside: 57817-89-7 Rebaudioside A: 58543-16-1 Rebaudioside C: 63550-99-2 Dulcoside A: 64432-06-0 The following are the chemical formulas for the principal and secondary steviol glycosides: Stevioside: C38H60O18 Rebaudioside A: C44H70O23 Rebaudioside C: C44H70O22 Dulcoside A: C38H60O17 The following are the structural formulas for the principal and
Chemical formulaStructural formula
secondary steviol glycosides:
O-R2 CH3 CH2
Compound name Stevioside Rebaudioside A
β-Glc-β-Glc(2→1) β-Glc-β-Glc(2→1) β-Glc(3→1) β-Glc-α-Rha(2→1) β-Glc(3→1) β-Glc-α-Rha(2→1)
Steviol (R1 = R2 = H) is the aglycone of the steviol glycosides. Glc and Rha represent,respectively, glucose and rhamnose sugar moieties.
The following are the formula weights for the principal and secondary steviol glycosides: Stevioside: 804.88 Rebaudioside C: 951.03 Rebaudioside A: 967.03 Dulcoside A: 788.88 Not less than 95% of total steviol glycosides. The sum of the percentages of stevioside and rebaudioside A is not less than 70%. White crystalline powder,odourless or having a slight characteristic odour. About 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose.
FUNCTIONAL USES Sweetener CHARACTERISTICS
IDENTIFICATION Solubility (Vol. 4) Stevioside and rebaudioside A PURITY Ash (Vol. 4)
Freely soluble in water and in ethanol The material contains not less than 70% of stevioside and rebaudioside A as identified and determined in the Methodof Assay. Not more than 1% Test 3 g of the sample (Method I)
Loss on drying (Vol. 4) Residual solvents Arsenic (Vol. 4) Lead (Vol. 4)
Not more than 4% (105°, 3h) Information required Not more than 1 mg/kg Not more than 1 mg/kg Determine using an atomic absorption technique appropriate to the specified level. The selection of sample size and method of sample preparation may be based on the...