Bachiller en ciencias y letras

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Production Credits Written, Produced and Directed by: Steve York Narrated by: Ben Kingsley Series Editor and Principal Content Advisor: Peter Ackerman Managing Producer: Miriam A. Zimmerman Editors: Joseph Wiedenmayer and David Ewing Executive Producer: Jack DuVall Senior Production Executives for WETA: Richard Thomas, Polly Wells and Laurie Rackas Executive-in-Charge of Production: Dalton DelanOutreach/Study Guide Writer: Jonathan Mogul Editor: Barbara de Boinville Project Staff, WETA Senior Vice President, Strategic Projects: Francine Zorn Trachtenberg Project Manager, Educational Services & Outreach: Karen Zill Art Director: Cynthia Aldridge Administrative Coordinator: Susi Crespo Intern: Justine Nelson Web Development, WETA Director, Interactive Media: Walter Rissmeyer Manager,Interactive Media: John R. Shortess Graphic Designer: Thanh Bui Project Assistant: Adam Csillag Educational Outreach Partners American Political Science Association National Council for the Social Studies World Affairs Councils of America

Educational Outreach Advisors Dr. Kevin Clements, International Alert, London, England Martharose Laffey, former Executive Director, National Council for theSocial Studies, Washington, D.C. Joanne Leedom-Ackerman, former Chair, Writers in Prison Committee, International PEN Sheilah Mann, Director of Educational Affairs, American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C. Doug McAdam, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University Sidney Tarrow, Maxwell M. Upson Professor of Government, Cornell University Educationalmaterials for A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict were developed in association with Toby Levine Communications, Inc., Potomac, Maryland. To order the companion book, A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict, by Peter Ackerman and Jack DuVall, call St. Martin’s Press at 1-800-221-7945, ext. 270. You will receive a 20% discount when you order with a major credit card.Video Distribution To order videocassettes of the two 90-minute programs for home use, or the six 30-minute modules for educational/institutional use, please contact: Films for the Humanities & Sciences P.O. Box 2053 Princeton, NJ 08543-2053 Toll free: 1-800-257-5126 Fax: 609-275-3767 web site: http://www.films.com

RK ZIMMERMAN INC.

Major funding for this project was provided by Susan andPerry Lerner. Additional funding was provided by The Albert Einstein Institution; Elizabeth and John H. van Merkensteijn, III; Abby and Alan Levy; and The Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. © Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association, 2000.

INTRODUCTION

O

ne Friday night in December 1981, Lech Walesa and other leaders of Solidarity were arrested after a meeting in Gdansk.For sixteen months their free trade-union movement had shaken the foundation of the Communist Party’s hold on Poland through factory occupations and strikes. Now martial law had been imposed, and Solidarity was looking down the gun barrel of defeat. When he was taken away, Walesa challenged his captors. “At this moment, you lost,” he warned them. “We are arrested, but you have driven a nail intoyour communist coffin... You’ll come back to us on your knees.”1 If only violence is power and if repression has no answer, Walesa’s words were foolish. But he knew that Solidarity, by depriving the regime of the Polish people’s support, had already defined the course of the conflict. When the state had run out of ways to coerce their compliance, it would have to come to terms. Seven years laterGen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, the leader who had jailed Walesa, invited him and other Solidarity leaders to roundtable talks that led to a new government. In 1990 Walesa, a shipyard electrician only 10 years before, became president of Poland. He had never fired a shot, nor had anyone in Solidarity. But together they threw back the shroud of authoritarian power and gave freedom to every Pole. A FORCE...
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