for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program
PUBLICATION NO. FHWA-RD-03-031 JUNE 2003
In 1987, the Strategic Highway Research Program began the largest and most comprehensive pavement performance test in history—the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. During the program’s 20-year life, highway agencies in the United States and 15 other countrieswill have collected data on pavement condition, climate, and traffic volumes and loads from more than 1,000 pavement test sections. That information will allow pavement engineers to design better, longer-lasting roads. This manual was developed to provide a consistent, uniform basis for collecting distress data for the LTPP program. This manual provides a common language for describing cracks,potholes, rutting, spalling, and other pavement distresses being monitored by the LTPP program. The manual is divided into three sections, each focusing on a particular type of pavement: (1) asphalt concrete-surfaced, (2) jointed portland cement concrete, and (3) continuously reinforced portland cement concrete. Each distress is clearly labeled, described, and illustrated.
T. PaulTeng, P.E. Director Office of Infrastructure Research and Development
Notice This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. The U.S. Government does not endorseproducts or manufacturers. Trade and manufacturers’ names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the object of the document.
LIST OF FIGURES / v LIST OF TABLES / viii PREFACE / ix
DISTRESSES FOR PAVEMENTS WITH ASPHALT CONCRETE SURFACES / 1
A. Cracking / 3 1. Fatigue Cracking 2. Block Cracking 3. Edge Cracking 4. Longitudinal Cracking 5. ReflectionCracking at Joints 6. Transverse Cracking B. Patching and Potholes / 15 7. Patch Deterioration 8. Potholes C. Surface Deformation / 21 9. Rutting 10. Shoving D. Surface Defects / 25 11. Bleeding 12. Polished Aggregate 13. Raveling E. Miscellaneous Distresses / 29 14. Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff 15. Water Bleeding and Pumping
DISTRESSES FOR PAVEMENTS WITH JOINTED PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETESURFACES / 33
A. Cracking / 35 1. Corner Breaks 2. Durability Cracking (“D” Cracking) 3. Longitudinal Cracking 4. Transverse Cracking B. Joint Deficiencies / 43 5. Joint Seal Damage 5a. Transverse Joint Seal Damage 5b. Longitudinal Joint Seal Damage 6. Spalling of Longitudinal Joints 7. Spalling of Transverse Joints C. Surface Defects / 47 8. Map Cracking and Scaling 8a. Map Cracking 8b. Scaling9. Polished Aggregate 10. Popouts D. Miscellaneous Distresses / 51 11. Blowups 12. Faulting of Transverse Joints and Cracks 13. Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff 14. Lane-to-Shoulder Separation 15. Patch/Patch Deterioration 16. Water Bleeding and Pumping
DISTRESSES FOR PAVEMENTS WITH CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE SURFACES / 59
A. Cracking / 61 1. Durability Cracking (“D” Cracking) 2.Longitudinal Cracking 3. Transverse Cracking B. Surface Defects / 67 4. Map Cracking and Scaling 4a. Map Cracking 4b. Scaling 5. Polished Aggregate 6. Popouts C. Miscellaneous Distresses / 71 7. Blowups 8. Transverse Construction Joint Deterioration 9. Lane-to-Shoulder Dropoff 10. Lane-to-Shoulder Separation 11. Patch/Patch Deterioration 12. Punchouts 13. Spalling of Longitudinal Joints 14. WaterBleeding and Pumping 15. Longitudinal Joint Seal Damage
GLOSSARY / 85
MANUAL FOR DISTRESS SURVEYS / 87
Blank Distress Map Forms and Data Sheets / 107
MANUAL FOR FAULTMETER MEASUREMENTS / 123
PROFILE MEASUREMENTS USING THE FACE DIPSTICK® / 129
FIGURE 1 Measuring Crack Width in Asphalt ConcreteSurfaced Pavements / 3 FIGURE 2 Effect on Severity Level of Block Cracking due...