* "tool for digging," O.E. spadu, from P.Gmc. *spadon(cf. O.Fris. spada, M.Du. spade, O.S. spado, M.L.G. spade, Ger. Spaten), from PIE *spe- "long, flat piece of wood" (cf. Gk. spathe "wooden blade, paddle," O.E. spon "chip of wood, splinter," O.N.spann "shingle, chip").
* early 15c., "full of poison" (pp. adj.), from M.L. intoxicatus, pp. of intoxicare "to poison," from L. in- "in" + toxicare "to poison," from toxicum "poison" (see toxic).The verb meaning "to poison" is first attested 1520s; meaning "make drunk" first recorded 1570s (implied in intoxicated).
* ADJ. late 14c., from M.Fr. preservatif, from M.L. praeservativus, frompraeservare (see preserve (v.)). Noun sense of "chemical added to foods to keep them from rotting" is from 1875.
* 1640s, from L. ulterior "more distant, further," comparative of *ulter "beyond"(see ultra-). The sense in ulterior motives is first attested 1735.
* mid-14c., from O.Fr. ierarchie, from M.L. hierarchia "ranked division of angels" (in the system of Dionysius theAreopagite), from Gk. hierarkhia "rule of a high priest," from hierarkhes "high priest, leader of sacred rites," from ta hiera "the sacred rites" (neut. pl. of hieros "sacred;" see ire) + arkhein "to lead,rule" (see archon). Sense of "ranked organization of persons or things" first recorded 1610s, initially of clergy, probably influenced by higher. Related: Hierarchal; hierarchical.
* late 14c., fromO.Fr. prohibition (early 13c.), from L. prohibitionem (nom. prohibitio) "a hindering, forbidding," from prohibitus, pp. of prohibere "hold back," from pro- "away, forth" (see pro-) + habere "to hold"(see habit). Meaning "forced alcohol abstinence" is 1851, Amer.Eng.; in effect in U.S. as law 1920-1933 under the Volstead Act.
early 15c., "diverse condition;" c.1600 "act of diverting," from...