Evaluación de recursos

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ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT
The Potential Role of Renewable Energy in Meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Paper prepared for the REN21 Network by The Worldwatch Institute Lead Authors: Christopher Flavin and Molly Hull Aeck

ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT
The Potential Role of Renewable Energy in Meeting the Millennium Development Goals

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ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSSponsors
German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development; REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network

Many thanks to the following individuals for their valuable input to the research and writing of this paper:
Members of the REN21 Steering Committee, David Hales (Worldwatch Institute), Neeraj Doshi (Fletcher School of Diplomacy), Eric Martinot (Worldwatch Institute and TsinghuaUniversity), Abeeku Brew-Hammond and Kunal Mehta (Global Village Energy Partnership–GVEP), Richard Hansen and John Rodgers (Soluz), Anil Cabraal (World Bank), Amit Kumar and Akanksha Chaurey (The Energy and Resource Institute–TERI), James New and Alexander Varghese (United Nations Industrial Development Organization–UNIDO), Alvaro Umana, Christine Woerlen (Global Environment Facility–GEF), IbrahimTogola (Mali Folkecenter), John Christensen (Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development–GNESD and RISOE), Nelson Stevens (Wireless Energy), Pravin Karki (International Hydropower Association–IHA), Ram Shrestha (Asian Institute of Technology–AIT), Shimon Awerbuch (University. of Sussex) Amy Francis (Renewable Energy Association of Swaziland–REASWA), Paul Suding, Dieter Uh, and Philippe Lempp(Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit–GTZ)

Producer and Publisher
Worldwatch Institute

Lead Authors
Christopher Flavin and Molly Hull Aeck, Worldwatch Institute

Research Director
Molly Hull Aeck, Worldwatch Institute

ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT

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CONTENTS
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..4 Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. Energy for Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Understanding Energy Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 The Role of Energy in Achieving the MDGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .9 2. Renewable Energy’s Potential Contribution to Achieving the MDGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 MDG 1: Poverty and Hunger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 RETs Can Supply Cooking and Heating Fuel, Saving Time and Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Providing Lighting,Communications, Refrigeration, and Conveniences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 RETs Can Create Opportunities for Income Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 MDG 2: Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 MDG 3: Gender Equality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 28 MDG 4, 5, and 6: Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 RETs Can Improve Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 RETs Can Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 RETs Leadto More Sustainable Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

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ENERGY FOR DEVELOPMENT

PREFACE
This paper was prepared for REN21, the...
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