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Politicians, businessmen and citizens in general, tend to value science above all for his ability to solve social problems and its utility. No wonder then that many scientists of all time have facedindustrial issues are resolved. Thus, in the nineteenth century, Pasteur successfully solved some problems of French industries of food and silk. Also in the nineteenth century, a theoreticalphysicist and Thomson (Lord Kelvin) was interested in the transatlantic telegraph wiring, among other issues related to technology and industry of his time. Once in the XX, Marie Curie was instrumental inlaunching the industrial processes for the manufacture and purify many radioactive substances, and the instrumentation required to do so. Under his leadership, the Institute of Radio played a decisiverole in the development of radioactivity metrology for industrial and medical applications.
Industrial Science vigorously developed in Germany during the last third of the nineteenth centuryindustrial development resulting from electromagnetism, industry-based dyes in organic chemistry, internal combustion engines as a result of thermodynamics, etc. In the early twentieth century, U.S. companiessuch as General Electric and American Telephone and Telegraph (ATT) transformed their small laboratories for routine work in real R & D + I.
But it was during 30 years of the twentieth century,also in EE. UU., When technology-oriented science became much more intense, in particular since the emergence of big-science (rocket science). The origins of the big-science can be found in the decadeof the 30, which were developed and successfully launched the first elementary particles accelerators (cyclotrons), under the leadership of Ernest O. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at the Universityof Berkeley (California), a pioneering project that culminated in 1940 with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, very interested in biomedical applications of the cyclotron. It is...
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