Jack St. Clair Kilby (November 8, 1923 – June 20, 2005) was a Nobel Prize laureate in physics in 2000 for his invention of the integrated circuit in 1958 while working at TexasInstruments (TI). He is also the inventor of the handheld calculator and thermal printer.
Kilby received his bachelor of science degree from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where he is anhonorary member of Acacia Fraternity. In 1947, he received a degree in Electrical Engineering. He obtained his master of science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukeein 1950, while simultaneously working at Centralab in Milwaukee.
In mid-1958, Kilby was a newly employed engineer at Texas Instruments who did not yet have the right to a summer vacation. He spent thesummer working on the problem in circuit design that was commonly called the "tyranny of numbers" and finally came to the conclusion that manufacturing the circuit components en masse in a singlepiece of semiconductor material could provide a solution. On September 12 he presented his findings to the management, which included Mark Shepherd, of Texas Instruments: he showed them a piece ofgermanium with an oscilloscope attached, pressed a switch, and the oscilloscope showed a continuous sine wave, proving that his integrated circuit worked and thus that he solved the problem. U.S. Patent3,138,743 for "Miniaturized Electronic Circuits", the first integrated circuit, was filed on February 6, 1959. Along with Robert Noyce (who independently made a similar circuit a few months later), Kilbyis generally credited as co-inventor of the integrated circuit.
In addition to the integrated circuit, Kilby also is noted for patenting the electronic portable calculator and the thermal printerused in data terminals. In total, he held about 60 patents.
From 1978 to 1985, he was Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering at Texas A&M University. In 1983, Kilby retired from Texas...