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Chapter 1 – Student Solutions Manual 3. Using the given conversion factors, we find (a) the distance d in rods to be d = 4.0 furlongs =

( 4.0 furlongs )( 201.168 m furlong )
5.0292 m rod

= 160 rods,

(b) and that distance in chains to be d =

( 4.0 furlongs )( 201.168 m furlong )
20.117 m chain

= 40 chains.

5. Various geometric formulas are given in Appendix E. (a) Expressingthe radius of the Earth as
R = ( 6.37 × 106 m )(10 −3 km m ) = 6.37 × 103 km,

its circumference is s = 2π R = 2π (6.37 × 103 km) = 4.00 × 104 km. (b) The surface area of Earth is A = 4π R 2 = 4π ( 6.37 × 103 km ) = 5.10 × 108 km 2 .
2

(c) The volume of Earth is V =

4π 3 4π R = 6.37 × 103 km 3 3

(

)

3

= 1.08 × 1012 km3 .

17. None of the clocks advance by exactly 24 h in a24-h period but this is not the most important criterion for judging their quality for measuring time intervals. What is important is that the clock advance by the same amount in each 24-h period. The clock reading can then easily be adjusted to give the correct interval. If the clock reading jumps around from one 24-h period to another, it cannot be corrected since it would impossible to tell whatthe correction should be. The following gives the corrections (in seconds) that must be applied to the reading on each clock for each 24-h period. The entries were determined by subtracting the clock reading at the end of the interval from the clock reading at the beginning. CLOCK A B C D Sun. -Mon. −16 −3 −58 +67 Mon. -Tues. −16 +5 −58 +67 Tues. -Wed. −15 −10 −58 +67 Wed. -Thurs. −17 +5 −58 +67Thurs. -Fri. −15 +6 −58 +67 Fri. -Sat. −15 −7 −58 +67

E

+70

+55

+2

+20

+10

+10

Clocks C and D are both good timekeepers in the sense that each is consistent in its daily drift (relative to WWF time); thus, C and D are easily made “perfect” with simple and predictable corrections. The correction for clock C is less than the correction for clock D, so we judge clock C to bethe best and clock D to be the next best. The correction that must be applied to clock A is in the range from 15 s to 17s. For clock B it is the range from -5 s to +10 s, for clock E it is in the range from -70 s to -2 s. After C and D, A has the smallest range of correction, B has the next smallest range, and E has the greatest range. From best to worst, the ranking of the clocks is C, D, A, B, E.21. We introduce the notion of density:

ρ=
and convert to SI units: 1 g = 1 × 10−3 kg.

m V

(a) For volume conversion, we find 1 cm3 = (1 × 10−2m)3 = 1 × 10−6m3. Thus, the density in kg/m3 is
−3 3 ⎛ 1 g ⎞ ⎛ 10 kg ⎞ ⎛ cm ⎞ 3 3 1 g cm = ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ −6 3 ⎟ = 1 × 10 kg m . ⎝ cm ⎠ ⎝ g ⎠ ⎝ 10 m ⎠ 3

Thus, the mass of a cubic meter of water is 1000 kg. (b) We divide the mass of the water bythe time taken to drain it. The mass is found from M = ρV (the product of the volume of water and its density):
M = 5700 m 3

(

) (1 × 10

3

kg m 3 = 5.70 × 106 kg.

)

The time is t = (10h)(3600 s/h) = 3.6 × 104 s, so the mass flow rate R is M 5.70 × 106 kg R= = = 158 kg s. t 3.6 × 104 s

35. (a) Dividing 750 miles by the expected “40 miles per gallon” leads the tourist tobelieve that the car should need 18.8 gallons (in the U.S.) for the trip. (b) Dividing the two numbers given (to high precision) in the problem (and rounding off) gives the conversion between U.K. and U.S. gallons. The U.K. gallon is larger than the U.S gallon by a factor of 1.2. Applying this to the result of part (a), we find the answer for part (b) is 22.5 gallons.

39. Using the (exact)conversion 2.54 cm = 1 in. we find that 1 ft = (12)(2.54)/100 = 0.3048 m (which also can be found in Appendix D). The volume of a cord of wood is 8 × 4 × 4 = 128 ft3, which we convert (multiplying by 0.30483) to 3.6 m3. Therefore, one cubic meter of wood corresponds to 1/3.6 ≈ 0.3 cord. 41. (a) The difference between the total amounts in “freight” and “displacement” tons, (8 − 7)(73) = 73 barrels bulk,...
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