Gender differences in leadership

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ACADEMY OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
UNDER THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SCIENCES

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LEADERSHIP

Written by: Udovika Daria
Date: May 20, 2010

Moscow 2010

CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….3
II. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LEADERSHIP………….….4-22
1. THE MAIN THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP………………………… 4
2. DIFFERENCES BETWEENFEMALE AND MALE LEADERSHIP……………………..………….6-12
2.1 FEMALE LEADERSHIP…………………………………………………………6
2.2 MALE LEADERSHIP…………………………………………………………….9
2.3 DIFFERENT RESPONSES TO WOMEN AND MEN IN LEADERSHIP ROLES……...10
3. SURVEY DATA ANALYSIS………………………………..…13-22
3.1. PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY OF U.S…………………………………..…………13
3.2 ACADEMY OF NATIONAL ECONOMY………………………………………..16
III CONCLUSION………………………………………………………....23IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………….....…24
I. INTRODUCTION
The present paper is concerned with the examination of gender differences in leadership. Statistics show that though the female population is bigger than male, the
number of men in leadership has outnumbered women greatly. Women used to be
considered as not capable of being a leader due to their weak physical body. Men areusually perceived as strong, wise and able to lead the community. In many countries and
cultures, women usually stay at home, taking care of children and doing many others housewife jobs. For a long time women have been struggling to have the right to lead the society.
Never before in human history have so many people been trying to make such
sweeping changes in such a little time. It isobvious that the present situation calls for transformational leadership. The human species are experiencing a birth process. An old era when women were supported to be only good workers is certainly coming to an end and is being replaced by a new era when females are challenged to be both leaders at work and caring mothers and wives. Importantly, as we are approaching this pivot point, we willexperience both the breakdown of many existing institutions and systems, and the breakthrough of new
systems. Our social and environmental systems have been driven far from their historical
equilibrium conditions.
The main problem to be studied in this paper is the difference between male and female approaches to leadership. With an increasing number of women leaders, there arises thequestion: “Do women use the same leadership methods as men do?”.
To answer this question we should first of all look into main leadership characteristics and theories. This is the main purpose of the first part of this paper.
The second part will deal with both male and female types of leadership and their most significant peculiarities. After describing both of them, we will concentrate oninvestigating how employees response to male and female leaders.
This paper further examines the differences and similarities in the stereotypes about male and female leaders.  Additionally, we study the main tendencies in male and female leadership and the ways and styles used by female and male leaders. We hope to find a final point of taking a stand on which gender makes a better leader, menor women. 
The third part of the paper deals with the discussion of the results of two surveys on people’s perception of both female and male leaders.

II. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LEADERSHIP
1. THE MAIN THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP

“Leadership is not a basket of tricks or skills.
It is the quality and character and courage of the person who is the leader.
It’s a matter of ethics and moralcompass, the willingness to remain highly vulnerable”.
Frances Hesselbein, Drucker Foundation

We shall begin with a brief consideration of the most significant points of leadership theories. Leadership is a process by which members of a group are empowered to work together toward a common goal or vision that will create change, transform institutions, and thus improve the quality of...
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