Genetics

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Biology Review:

1. Genetics: is the science of heredity and the mechanism by which traits are passed from parents to offspring.
2. Characters: a recognizable inherited feature or characteristic of an organism.
*Physical features that are inherited.
3. Trait: one of two or more possible forms of a character; a recognizable feature or characteristic of an organism.
4. Allele:Each version of a gene. One of two or more alternative forms of a gene, each leading to a unique trait.
5. Generation: is a group of offspring from a given group of parents.
6. Probability: is the likelihood that a specific event will occur. *Expressed in mathematical terms
7. Pedigree: is a family history that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations. A diagram thatshows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
8. Genetic Disorder: an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect.
9. Polygenic Inheritance: is when several genes affect a character that is influenced by more than one gene.
10. Incomplete Dominance: is when an offspring has a phenotype that isintermediate between the traits of its two parents.
11. Multiple Alleles: Genes that have three or more possible alleles.
12. Codominance: a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed.
13. Gene: a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome and that codes for a specific heredity trait. {Instructions for inherited traits.}
14. DNA: [Deoxyribonucleic acid] The materialthat contains the information that determines inherited characteristics.
*Is the primary material that causes recognizable, inheritable characteristics in related groups of organisms.
15. Nucleotide: in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
16. Purines: a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; adenine or guanine17. Pyrimidine: a nitrogenous base that has single-ring structures; in DNA, either thymine or cytosine.
18. Hydrogen bonds:
19. DNA Replication: the process of making a copy of DNA.
20. DNA Helicases: an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA Replication.
21. DNA Polymerases: an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
*If a mix-match occurs, theycan back track remove the incorrect nucleotide and replace it with the correct one.
22. RNA: [Ribonucleic acid] a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
23. Gene Expression: is the manifestation of genes into specific traits.
24. mRNA: messenger; carries instructions for making a protein from a gene and delivers them to the siteof translation.
25. tRNA: translation; reads the mRNA sequence, translates it into a specific sequence of protein subunits. Act as decoders by matching the mRNA sequence and placing the amino acids on growing protein chains.
26. rRNA: ribosomes; is the RNA that is found in ribosomes. (Ribosomal RNA) Protein production occurs on cellular structures called ribosomes.
27. Codon: athree-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
28. Mutation: simply means “change”. Is a change in the structure or amount of the genetic material of an organism.

Important Details:

1. Three Steps of Mendel’s Experiments:

* Step 1: Mendel allowed plants that had each type of trait to self-pollinate for several generations.
*Step2: He crossed two P generation plants that had contrasting traits.
* Step 3: He allowed the F1 generation to self-pollinate and produce new plants.

2. Base-Pairing Rules:

-A purine on one strand of a DNA molecule is always paired with a pyrimidine on the other strand. Specifically: adenine always pairs with thymine, and guanine always pairs with cytosine.
-The structure and...
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