TOPICS IN GEOBIOLOGY
Series Editors: Neil H. Landman, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York Douglas S. Jones, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
Current volumes in this series
Applied Stratigraphy Eduardo A. M. Koutsoukos Hardbound, ISBN,1-4020-2632-3, 2005 The Geobiology and Ecology of Metasequoia Ben A. LePage, Christopher J. Williams and Hong Yang Hardbound, ISBN, 1-4020-2631-5, 2004 High-Resolution Approaches in Stratigraphic Paleontology Peter J. Harries Hardbound, ISBN 1-4020-1443-0, September 2003 Predator-Prey Interactions in the Fossil Record Patricia H. Kelley, Michal Kowalewski, Thor A. Hansen Hardbound, ISBN0-306-47489-1, January 2003 Fossils, Phylogeny, and Form Jonathan M. Adrain, Gregory D. Edgecombe, Bruce S. Lieberman Hardbound, ISBN 0-306-46721-6, January 2002 Eocene Biodiversity Gregg F. Gunnell Hardbound, ISBN 0-306-46528-0, September 2001 The History and Sedimentology of Ancient Reef Systems George D. Stanley Jr. Hardbound, ISBN 0-306-46467-5, November 2001 Paleobiogeography Bruce S. LiebermanHardbound, ISBN 0-306-46277-X, May 2000 Environmental Micropaleontology Ronald E. Martin Hardbound, ISBN 0-306-46232-X, July 2000 Neogene, Paleontology of the Manonga Valley, Tanzania Terry Harrison Hardbound, ISBN 0-306-45471-8, May 1997 Ammonoid Paleobiology Neil H. Landman, Kazushige Tanabe, Richard Arnold Davis Hardbound, ISBN 0-306-45222-7, May 1996
A Continuation Order Plan is available for this series. A continuation order will bring delivery of each new volume immediately upon publication. Volumes are billed only upon actual shipment. For further information please contact the publisher.
Edited by EDUARDO A.M. KOUTSOUKOSPETROBRAS-CENPES, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
A C.I.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN 1-4020-2632-3 (HB) ISBN 1-4020-2763-X (e-book) Published by Springer, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Sold and distributed in North, Central and South America by Springer, 101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA02061, U.S.A. In all other countries, sold and distributed by Springer, P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands. First printed 2004, Reprinted with corrections 2005. Cover illustrations: Inserts: Thin section of fossil wood showing false and true growth rings, Irati Formation (Upper Permian), Fig. 9.1A of L. S. R. Alves and M. Guerra-Sommer, photo by L. S. R. Alves. Trace fossil associationcharacteristic of the Teredolites ichnofacies, Fig. 13.4 by S. George Pemberton and James A. MacEachern. Center: GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY, Vincent Brooks Day & Son, Lith., by Duncan, Peter Martin (editor), 1896, Cassell’s Natural History, 6 vols. in 3, London, ca. 380 p., 26 cm, wood-engraved plate, photo by E. A. M. Koutsoukos. Printed on acid-free paper All Rights Reserved © 2005 Springer Nopart of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of thework. Printed in the Netherlands.
“Indeed, what is there that does not appear marvelous when it comes to our knowledge for the first time? How many things, too, are looked upon as quite impossible until they have been actually effected?”
Pliny the Elder (23 AD - 79 AD), Natural History.
“Let us suppose that an ichthyologist is exploring the life of the ocean. He casts a net into the water...