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BIOLOGY HOMEWORK
Adenine: A purine base, C5H5N5, that is the constituent involved in base pairing with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA.
Bacteriophage: is any one of a number of viruses thatinfect bacteria. Bacteriophages are among the most common biological entities on Earth. The term is commonly used in its shortened form, phage.
Complementary base pairing: The pairing of complementarynucleotide bases (adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine) to each other via hydrogen bonds from opposite strands of a double stranded nucleic acid (such as DNA or RNA), thereby holding thedouble-stranded nucleic acid together.
DNA: The molecule that encodes genetic information in the nucleus of cells. It determines the structure, function and behaviour of the cell.
DNA is a double-strandedmolecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. The four nucleotides in DNA contain the bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).
In nature, base pairsform only between A and T and between G and C, thus the base sequence of each single strand can be deduced from that of its partner.
DNA Polymerase: is an enzyme that participates in the processof DNA replication in prokaryotes. It is composed of 928 amino acids, and is an example of a processive enzyme - it can sequentially catalyze multiple polymerisations. Discovered by Arthur Kornberg in1956, it was the first known DNA polymerase (and, indeed, the first known of any kind of polymerase). It was initially characterized in E. coli, although it is ubiquitous in prokaryotes. In E. coliand many other bacteria, the gene which encodes Pol I is known as polA.
Cytosine: is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ringand two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at position 2). The nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine. In Watson-Crick base pairing, it forms three hydrogen bonds with...
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