In the crossfire of democracy. police reform and police practice in post-civil war guatemala

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In the Crossfire of Democracy
Police Reform and Police Practice in Post-Civil War Guatemala

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In the Crossfire of Democracy Police Reform and Police Practice in Post-Civil War Guatemala

In het Kruisvuur van de Democratie Politie Hervorming en Politie Praktijk in Guatemala na de Burgeroorlog (Met een samenvatting in het Nederlands)

Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad vandoctor aan de Universiteit Utrecht op gezag van de Rector Magnificus, Prof. Dr. W. H. Gispen ingevolge het besluit van het College van Promoties in het openbaar te verdedigen op vrijdag 7 maart 2003 des middags te 2.30 uur

door Marie-Louise Glebbeek geboren op 23 augustus 1971 te Emmeloord

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Promotor: Co-promotor:

Prof. Dr. D. Kruijt Dr. K. Koonings

This research was funded by theNetherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO).

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Contents
List of Illustrations Preface Chapter 1 Introduction 10 13 17 17 22 22 23 25 28 30 32 32 32 33 33 33 34 37 37 39 41 45 46 50 53 58 62 63 64 66 69

Relevance and Aim of the Study Research Questions Methodology Entry in the Field The Fieldwork The Identity of the Researcher A Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing: TheSwitching Roles of the Researcher Research Methods Participant Observation Interviews Police Reports and Files Document Analysis Questionnaire Design of the Book Chapter 2 Policing Democracy, Democratic Policing

Introduction Towards a Definition of Police and Policing Policing Democracy Democratic Policing Rule of Law and Citizenship Demilitarisation Public Participation, Representation andResponsiveness Accountability, Legitimacy and Transparency A Note on Police Culture Police Reform Conditions for Reform International Support National Governments

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The Police Institution The Public Key Ingredients of Successful Police Reform Conclusion Chapter 3 Force and Fear, Counterinsurgency Policing in Guatemala

70 71 72 75 79 79 80 80 82 85 86 86 87 90 92 95 99 102 106 111 115 115 116 117120 123 127 127 130 133 135 137 138 142 144 149 149

Introduction La Epoca Negra Forced Abduction, Disappearance and Extra-Judicial killings Torture Clandestine Prisons The Building of a Terror State: Guatemala until 1986 The Guatemalan Revolution Insurgency and Counterinsurgency The Young Officer Movement and its Solution to the Violence Militarising the Guatemalan Police The Rise ofCounterinsurgency Policing The Army’s Handymen Civilian Government and Peace Negotiations Pre-Peace Accords Efforts to Reform the Police Forces Conclusion Chapter 4 The Reform Process and the Creation of the PNC

Introduction Negotiating the Police Reform Negotiating the AFPC Government Plans and the GCE The Foundation of the Reform: the AFPC and Government Commitments The Implementation of the PoliceReform Initiating the Police Reform: the Government and the GCE The role of MINUGUA Training by ICITAP Coordination and Cooperation of International Actors Civil and Political Society New Forms of Violence Short Cuts made by the Arzú Government Conclusion Chapter 5 Introduction Inside the PNC: Organisation and Resources

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Mission, Doctrine, and Discourse Organizational Structure Equipment,Infrastructure and Budget PNC Personnel Composition and Characteristics of PNC Personnel Ethnicity Gender Leadership and Management Rank-and-file Personnel & Hierarchy National Police and Guardia Hacienda Personnel Police Culture Operational Forces The Police Precincts The Whereabouts of Comisaría 12 Special Units The Police Information Service (SIP) The Office of Professional Responsibility (ORP)Criminal Investigation Unit (SIC) Special Police Force (FEP) The Anti-Narcotic Police Squad (DOAN) Conclusion Chapter 6 The Police Academy

150 154 156 159 159 161 162 164 167 170 171 174 174 176 181 183 184 185 188 191 193 197 197 198 200 201 202 207 210 213 215 219 220 225 228 231 233 236

Introduction Functions of the Police Academy Organization and Structure of the Academy International...
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