Designation: C 29/C 29M – 97
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Standard AASHTO No.: T19/T19M
Standard Test Method for
Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”) and Voids in Aggregate1
This standard isissued under the ﬁxed designation C 29/C 29M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use byagencies of the Department of Defense.
1. Scope 1.1 This test method covers the determination of bulk density (“unit weight”) of aggregate in a compacted or loose condition, and calculated voids between particles in ﬁne, coarse, or mixed aggregates based on the same determination. This test method is applicable to aggregates not exceeding 5 in. [125 mm] in nominal maximum size.
NOTE 1—Unit weight isthe traditional terminology used to describe the property determined by this test method, which is weight per unit volume (more correctly, mass per unit volume or density).
for Test Methods for Construction Materials2 C 702 Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size2 D 75 Practice for Sampling Aggregates3 D 123 Terminology Relating to Textiles4 E 11 Speciﬁcation for Wire Clothand Sieves for Testing Purposes5 2.2 AASHTO Standard: T19/T19M Method of Test for Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate6 3. Terminology 3.1 Deﬁnitions—Deﬁnitions are in accordance with Terminology C 125 unless otherwise indicated. 3.1.1 bulk density, n—of aggregate, the mass of a unit volume of bulk aggregate material, in which the volume includes the volume of the individual particles and the volumeof the voids between the particles. Expressed in lb/ft3 [kg/m3]. 3.1.2 unit weight, n—weight (mass) per unit volume. (Deprecated term–used preferred term bulk density.) 126.96.36.199 Discussion—Weight is equal to the mass of the body multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity. Weight may be expressed in absolute units (newtons, poundals) or in gravitational units (kgf, lbf), for example: on thesurface of the earth, a body with a mass of 1 kg has a weight of 1 kgf (approximately 9.81 N), or a body with a mass of 1 lb has a weight of 1 lbf (approximately 4.45 N or 32.2 poundals). Since weight is equal to mass times the acceleration due to gravity, the weight of a body will vary with the location where the weight is determined, while the mass of the body remains constant. On the surface of theearth, the force of gravity imparts to a body that is free to fall an acceleration of approximately 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2). D 123. 3.2 Deﬁnitions of Terms Speciﬁc to This Standard: 3.2.1 voids, n—in unit volume of aggregate, the space between particles in an aggregate mass not occupied by solid mineral matter.
1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regardedseparately as standard, as appropriate for a speciﬁcation with which this test method is used. An exception is with regard to sieve sizes and nominal size of aggregate, in which the SI values are the standard as stated in Speciﬁcation E 11. Within the text, SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore each system must be used independently ofthe other, without combining values in any way. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: C 125 Terminology...