students: ANGEL ARTURO MADRIGAL MILLA.
Sharday Deneb Jiménez pérez
gabriela ivette lara méndez.
topic: the refrigerator.
teacher: oscar dominguez cruz.
SUBJECT: ingles intermedio.
A refrigerator (commonly abbreviated as fridge) is a cooling apparatus. The common household appliance comprises a thermallyinsulatedcompartment and a heat pump—chemical or mechanical means—to transfer heat from it to the external environment (i.e., the room in which it is located), cooling the contents to a temperature below ambient. Cooling is a popular food storage technique in developed countries and works by decreasing the reproduction rate of bacteria. The device is thus used to reduce the rate of spoilage of foodstuffs.A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F). A similar device which maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a "freezer".
The refrigerator is a relatively modern invention among kitchen appliances. It replaced the icebox, which hadbeen a common household appliance for almost a century and a half prior. For this reason, a refrigerator is sometimes referred to as an "icebox".
Freezer units are used in households and in industry and commerce. Most freezers operate around 0 °F (−18 °C). Domestic freezers can be included as a separate compartment in a refrigerator, or can be a separate appliance.Domestic freezers are generally upright units resembling refrigerators, or chests (resembling upright units laid on their backs). Many upright modern freezers come with an ice dispenser built into their door.
Commercial and domestic refrigerators
Commercial fridge and freezer units, which go by many other names, were in use for almost 40 years prior to the common home models. Theyused toxic gas systems, which occasionally leaked, making them unsafe for home use. Practical household refrigerators were introduced in 1915 and gained wider acceptance in the United States in the 1930s as prices fell and non-toxic, non-flammable synthetic refrigerants such as Freon or R-12 were introduced. It is notable that while 60% of households in the US owned a refrigerator by the 1930s, itwas not until 40 years later, in the 1970s, that the refrigerator achieved a similar level of penetration in the United Kingdom.
Styles of refrigerators
Most households use the freezer on top and refrigerator on bottom style, which has been the basic style since the 1940s.
Traditional style 1940s-present freezer top/refrigerator bottom (although most of the earlier models,some of the cheaper later models, and still some mini-fridges use the 'freezer chest,' or what is known as the 'freezer in the fridge'). A separate freezer compartment (e.g. not located within the larger refrigerator compartment) became the industry standard during the early- to mid-1960s.
Side by side style – introduced by Amana in 1949 but not popular until 1965–present; left side isfreezer and the right is refrigerator.
Top refrigerator/bottom freezer style – mid-1950s – present.
Frigidaire Imperial "Frost Proof" model FPI-16BC-63, top refrigerator/bottom freezer with brushed chrome door finish made by General Motors Canada in 1963
French door style – late 1990s-present. Two French doors for refrigerator and bottom freezer.
In theearly-1950s, most refrigerators were white, but from the mid-1950s through present day, designers and manufacturers put color into refrigerators. In the late-1950s/early-1960s, colors like turquoise and pink were popular, brushed chrome plating (similar to stainless finish) was available on some models from different brands. In the 1970s, common colors were Harvest Gold, Avocado Green and almond. In the...