During the most recent of the Ice Ages, lasting from 30,000 to 10,000 years ago, an undersea ridge between Siberia and Alaska emerges from the sea. Known as the Bering Land Bridge, it lies partly south of the ice cap. It develops a steppe-like ecology of grasslands, grazed by large animals such as horses, reindeer and even mammoth.
Gradually, in many separateincursions, the hunter-gatherers of the Siberian steppes pursue their prey across the land bridge and into America. When the melting ice submerges the bridge, about 10,000 years ago, these northeast Asians become isolated as the aboriginal Americans.
Durante la más reciente de la edad de hielo, una duración de 30.000 a 10.000 años atrás, una cordillera submarina entre Siberia yAlaska surge desde el mar. Conocido como el puente de tierra de Bering, se encuentra en parte al sur de la capa de hielo. Desarrolla una estepa-como ecología de pastizales, rozó por grandes animales como caballos, Reno y incluso mamut.
Poco a poco, en muchas de las incursiones separadas, los cazadores y recolectores de las estepas de Siberia perseguir sus presas a través del puente de tierra yen América. Cuando el punto de fusión del hielo sumerge el puente, hace unos 10.000 años estos asiáticos noreste ser aislados como los aborígenes americanos.
Amerindian is a word that is derived from the (American Indian), the use of semantic range and differs slightly from one author to another.
Some authors include both Native Americans indigenous to the Americas before the startof the process of interbreeding with European and African populations, and their modern descendants.
For others the term Native American refers to all native peoples of America and their modern descendants, not intermixed.
While all continental American countries with indigenous populations, only a majority in Guatemala, Peru and Bolivia. In the United States Indian reservationshave the status of "sovereign" being its laws and tribal governments above the municipal regulations and state law and only under federal law and the Constitution by establishing a "government to government."
The voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492 sought to achieve a route to Asia that would allow avoid passing through the Eastern Mediterranean, then blocked by the Turks. Estimates ofColumbus, over optimistic, led him to believe that the western route was shorter than it actually is. Arriving in America at about the time that their calculations indicated that reach the coast of Zipangu (Japan today), did not recognize the territory as it was, and believed instead to have reached "the Indies", the generic name to the Far East Asia.
The (Discovery of America) was notrecognized as such at first, and it was not until years later that Amerigo Vespucci discovered the error. The natives of the lands discovered were called, by confusion, (Indians).
According to the known and accepted theory about the arrival of man in America, Native Americans are descended from hunter-gatherer groups of Siberian origin who migrated to America by the Bering Strait during the lastWürm glaciation. But some recent controversial discoveries, such as Pedra Furada (in Brazil) and Monte Verde (Chile) seem to contradict this theory, indicating possible pre-Siberian colonization. As in the rest of the world (except Africa), human colonization of these lands was accompanied by the near extinction of all local megafauna, except for some cattle, and bison.
Around 2500 a. C. wasimportant and farming communities, although the oldest civilization was that of Caral, in Peru, whose earliest evidence dating back to 3000 BC C.
The high pre-Columbian cultures in Mesoamerica and South America emerged. From north to south can name the Mexica, Mixtec, Toltec, Maya, Chibcha and Incas. In contrast, human settlements in North America did not reach a cultural level as complex as...