Dyslexia is a type of reading disability usually manifested as a difficulty with written language, particularly with reading and spelling. Evidence suggests that it is a result of a difference in howthe brain processes written and/or verbal language. It is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as deficiencies in intelligence, non-neurologicaldeficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. The word dyslexia comes from the Greek words δυς- dys- ("impaired") and λέξις lexis ("word"). People with dyslexia are calleddyslexic or dyslectic
Stuttering, also known as stammering in the United Kingdom, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations ofsounds, syllables, words or phrases; and involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unable to produce sounds.
The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntarysound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by stutterers as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels. Much of whatconstitutes "stuttering" cannot be observed by the listener; this includes such things as sound and word fears, situational fears, anxiety, tension, self-pity, stress, shame, and a feeling of "loss ofcontrol" during speech. The emotional state of the individual who stutters in response to the stuttering often constitutes the most difficult aspect of the disorder. The term "stuttering", as popularlyused, covers a wide spectrum of severity: it may encompass individuals with barely perceptible impediments, for whom the disorder is largely cosmetic, as well as others with extremely severe symptoms,for whom the problem can effectively prevent most oral communication. It is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds (see Speech sound disorders, Voice disorders) or...
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