Lineamientos para ambientes de agua de recreación segura. volumen 1

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Guidelines for safe recreational water environments
VOLUME 1 COASTAL AND FRESH WATERS

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION GENEVA

Guidelines for safe recreational water environments
VOLUME 1: COASTAL AND FRESH WATERS

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 2003

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data World Health Organization. Guidelines for safe recreational water environments. Volume 1, Coastal andfresh waters. 1.Bathing beaches—standards 2.Fresh water—microbiology 3.Water quality—analysis 4.Water pollution—analysis 5.Environmental monitoring—methods 6.Wound and injuries—prevention and control 7.Drowning 8.Risk management 9.Reference values 10.Guidelines I.Title II.Title: Coastal and fresh waters. ISBN 92 4 154580 1 (NLM classification: WA 820)

© World Health Organization 2003 All rightsreserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from Marketing and Dissemination, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 2476; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications—whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution—should be addressed toPublications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: permissions@who.int). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiersor boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietaryproducts are distinguished by initial capital letters. The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. Designed by minimum graphics Typeset in Hong Kong Printed in Malta

Contents

List of acronyms and abbreviations Preface AcknowledgementsExecutive summary CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 General considerations Types of recreational water environment Types of use Types of user Hazard and risk Measures to reduce risks in water recreation Managing recreational waters Nature of the guidelines References

vii ix xiii xix 1 2 3 4 5 5 11 12 16 19 20 20 23 26 26 26 27 30 31 36 36 45 47 48

CHAPTER 2. DROWNING ANDINJURY PREVENTION 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Drowning Spinal injury Brain and head injuries Fractures, dislocations and other minor impact injuries Cuts, lesions and punctures Interventions and control measures Monitoring and assessment References

CHAPTER 3. SUN, HEAT AND COLD 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Exposure to ultraviolet radiation Exposure to cold Exposure to heat References

iii

CHAPTER4. FAECAL POLLUTION AND WATER QUALITY 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Approach Health effects associated with faecal pollution Approaches to risk assessment and risk management Guideline values Assessing faecal contamination of recreational water environments Classification of recreational water environments Management action References

51 51 53 57 63 75 83 93 96 102 102 105 106 110 111 111 113118 118 121 123 123 124 124

CHAPTER 5. FREE-LIVING MICROORGANISMS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Human pathogenic Vibrio species Aeromonas species Free-living amoebae Leptospira species Guideline values Risk assessment and control measures References

CHAPTER 6. MICROBIAL ASPECTS OF BEACH SAND QUALITY 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Microorganisms in beach sand Dispersion and fate of microorganisms...
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