1. The use of /x/ in Old English.
English that causes /x/ to be dropped in words like thought, night, daughter etc. In traditional-dialect of the north of England and Scots, /x/ mayremain in many of the words in which it was found in Old English. Quite apart from traditional dialect, a fair number of names in the Celtic countries contain /x/ in the local pronunciation. Even inEngland /x/ can be said to hold a tenuous and marginal position in the consonant system of educated speakers, though certainly no longer found in Standard English in words which contained it in MiddleEnglish.
2.- The use of /f/ and /v/
An important aspect related to stress is that of the “weak forms”. There is a number of words in English which can be pronounced in two different ways, astrong and a weak form.
The phonemes /v/ and /f/ can be used for the same word (but not at the same time) depending on the stress of this word.
Ex. Strong form have /hæv/
Weak formhave /hæf/
3.- The Great Vowel Shift between 1400 and 1600
One major change in the pronunciation of English took place roughly between 1400 and 1600; these affected the ‘long’ vowels.This is known as the Great Vowel Shift (GVS). Generally, the long vowels became closer, and the original close vowels were diphthongised.
II.-Morphology and Syntax
1.- The changes of negationfrom Old English, Middle English to Modern English
English verbs display complex forms of negation. In old English the negation "nat" appears at the end of each negative clause. While simplenegation was used well into the period of middle English (ex. Touch not the royal person!) in English negation usually requires that the negative particle be attached to an auxiliary verb suchas do or be. (ex. I go not is archaic; I do not go or I am not going).
2.- The case system and word order.
Case System: A case system is a system which deals with grammatical category determined by the...