Materials Science: Scientific discipline related to the investigation, which takes as an object the basic knowledge of the internal structure, properties and processing ofthe materials.
Materials Engineering: An engineering discipline that deals with the knowledge of materials to fundamental and applied levels, so they can be converted into products needed or wishedby a technological society.
Characteristics of the materials:
Physical: These are the characteristics that have the materials when they are submitted to some external event, without altering theircomposition.
Chemical: characteristic of materials to undergo changes in its composition conditions.
5 Types of materials
Metals: These are commonly alloys, which are composed of two ormore elements, which one at least is metal. They have high electrical conductivity. Metals are divided into two groups; the first ones are ferrous because they are based on iron; while the second onesare called non-ferrous.
Ceramic: Compound that contains metallic and not metallic elements (oxygen, nitrogen, coal). They have small ductility and are high resistance to heat. For processing purposesthere could be two groups: crystalline ceramic and glass.
Polymers: Structures formed by repeated structural units called meres, whose atoms share electrons to form very large molecules.(Plastics). Are generally constructed by carbon and other elements as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine. There are three groups: thermoplastics, thermo stables and elastomer.
Semiconductors: Arematerials that conduct electricity in only one direction. These materials are not pure, they are normally alloys. Today, most semiconductor chips and transistors are created with silicon.
Composites:They are a mixture of two or more materials. The result may be a composite that have other material properties that they couldn’t have separately and superior properties.