Modal auxiliaries

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Modal Auxiliaries

* The modal auxiliaries are helping verbs that express a wide range of meanings (Ability, permission, possibility, necessity , obligation , etc).
* Most of the modals havemore than one meaning and are followed by the simple form of a verb.
* They are not followed by to:
Correct: I can speak English.
Incorrect: I can to speak English.
* The main verb never has afinal S :
Correct: Olga can speak Spanish.
Incorrect: Olga can speaks Spanish.

The Modals are :


nCan express ability in the present or future.
Ex:*Affirmative: Bob can play the piano.
*Question: Can you sing?.
*Negative: I can’t - can not – cannot understand that sentence.


May express permission or possibility.


*You may do your test. * They may be early for lunch.
*May I borrow your pen?. * I may not study tonight.
*May I speak to Mary ? * Itmay rain tomorrow.


nShould express Duty or Obligation.
*Affirmative : I should wash my clothes.
*Negative: You shouldn’t – should not stay up late.

MustnMust express necessity, that something is very necessary, it is a ‘’strong’’ word.
* I must study tonight.
* The ideal boyfriend must be honest.

Adverbs of frequency•The adverbs of frequency tell us how many times something happens.
•We often use them with simple Present Tense verbs.

Always - Usually - Often - Sometimes - Rarely - Never

Examples:Subject Adverbs Simple Present
I always play Soccer.
You usually drink milk.
He often Gets up At 7:00.
She sometimes takes The bus.
We rarely eat dinner.
sharksnever Walk.

Adverbs of frequency with BE:

Subject Verb BE Adverbs
I am Always
You are usually
Jorge is often late.
she is sometimes
we are rarely
they are never
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