Modal verb

Solo disponible en BuenasTareas
  • Páginas : 10 (2491 palabras )
  • Descarga(s) : 0
  • Publicado : 14 de febrero de 2012
Leer documento completo
Vista previa del texto
ISFD N°30
Lengua y Expresión Ecrita II
MODAL VERB
Modal auxiliary is a verb that is used with another verb to express an idea such a possibility, deduction, obligation etc. That is not expressed by the main verb of the sentence. The modal auxiliaries are the following.
NON/NEGATIVE | UNCONTRACTED NEGATIVE | CONTRECTED NEGATIVE | |
Cancould | cannot, can notcould not | can’tcouldn’t ||
maymight | may notmight not | mayn’t mightn’t | It is restricted to BrE, where it is rare |
Shallshould | shall notshould not | shan’t (it is rare in AmE)shouldn’t | |
will, ‘llwould, ‘d | will not, ‘ll notwould not, ‘d not | won’twouldn’t | |
must | must not | mustn’t | |
ought to | ought not to | oughtn’t to | AmE ,occasionally bare infinitive in question and in negativesentences |
used to | used not to | usedn’t to didn’t use to | Used always takes the to-infinitive and occurs only in the past tense. It may take do construction, when spellings didn’t used to and didn’t use to both occur. |
Need | Need not | needn’t | Need can be constructed as a modal auxiliary, or as a lexical verb. Modal verb construction is restricted to non-assertive contexts, mainly negativeand interrogative sentences. As modal auxiliary is probably rarer in AmE than in BrE.) |
dare | dare not | daren’t | Dare can be constructed as a modal auxiliary, or as a lexical verb. Modal verb construction is restricted to non-assertive contexts, mainly negative and interrogative sentences. As modal auxiliary is probably rarer in AmE than in BrE.) |

MEANING OF THE MODAL VERBS
MODAL |MEANING/USE | TIME REFERENCE | EXAMPLO |
Can | Ability | Present future | Can you play the piano? |
| Theoretical possibility | Present future | Anyone can make a mistake. |
| Permission | Present future | Can I leave early please? |
| Requests | Present future | Can you give me a hand? |
| Offers | Present future | Can I help you out? |
| Can + be capability | Present future |Winter here can be really cold. |
| Can+ be criticism | Present future | You can be really annoying, you know! |
Can’t/cannot | Inability | Present future | I can’t play the piano |
| Possibility | Present future | Can’t you come any earlier? |
| Prohibition | Present future | You can’t leave until I said so. |
| deduction | Present future | This bill can’t be right. |
Can’thave | Deduction | Past | She’s gone to the wrong door –She can´t have seen the sign. |
Could | ability | Past | The shop had nothing that I could afford. |
| possibility | Present future | There could be trouble if the Government tries to force this measure through |
| Requests | Present future | Could you give me a hand? |
| Asking for permission | Present future | Could I leavebit early today? |
| Permission | Past | When I was young, I could stay late at weekends If I promised to be good. |
| Deduction | Present future | That could be John’s car – he said he was coming. |
| Expressing suggestions | Present future | We could go to that new restaurant opposite the cinema. |
| Idiomatic | Present future | * You could at least tell what he said (= think youshould...) |
Couldn’t | Inability | Past | I couldn’t walk until I was nearly two. |
| Impossibility | Present future | I couldn’t eat another thing! |
| Requests | Present future | Couldn’t you try again? |
| Prohibition | Past | My mum used to insist that we couldn’t go out until we´d tidied our bedroom. |
| Deduction | Present future | I couldn’t be Joe, could it? I thought hewas away on business. |
| Idiomatic | Present future | I couldn’t agree more! (= I strongly agree) |
Could have | Possibility | Past | You actions could have had serious consequences. |
| Annoyance | Present future | You could have told me!(I wish you had told me) |
| | Past | I could have murdered him! ( = I was very angry with him) |
Couldn’t have | Impossibility | Past |...
tracking img