Nobel prize

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  • Publicado : 15 de octubre de 2010
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QUESTIONS
1. Who was Nobel? Brief biography.
2. What are Nobel Prizes? What disciplines/ accomplishments/ domains are awarded?
3. How much does a winner get? How is this funded?
4. Since when have they been awarded?
5. What Argentineans have won the Nobel Prize? For what achievements? In what years?
6. What Latinoamericans have won a Nobel Prize, others thanArgentineans? In what years? For what achievements?
7. Who decides upon the nominees and who chooses the winners?
8. Why have the prizes of the Stockholm Academy been questioned historically?

ANSWERS
1. Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) was born in Stockholm, Sweden, on October 21, 1833. His family was descended from Olof Rudbeck, the best-known technical genius in Sweden in the 17th century, an erain which Sweden was a great power in northern Europe. Nobel was fluent in several languages, and wrote poetry and drama. Nobel was also very interested in social and peace-related issues, and held views that were considered radical during his time.
On November 27, 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris. When it was opened and read after his death, the will caused a lot of controversyboth in Sweden and internationally, as Nobel had left much of his wealth for the establishment of a prize! His family opposed the establishment of the Nobel Prize, and the prize awarders he named refused to do what he had requested in his will. Five years after the first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901. He was also invented dynamite and was shocked to see how his invention was used for destructivepurposes; he wanted the prizes to be awarded to those who served mankind well.
2. It was awarded for achievements in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and for peace. Each prize consists of a medal, personal diploma, and a cash award.

3. On 27 November 1895, a year before his death, Alfred Nobel signed the famous will which would implement some of the goals to which hehad devoted so much of his life. Nobel stipulated in his will that most of his estate, more than SEK 31 million (today approximately SEK 1,650 million) should be converted into a fund and invested in "safe securities." The income from the investments was to be "distributed annually in the form of prizes to those who during the preceding year have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.” TheNobel Prize amount for 2010 is set at Swedish kronor (SEK) 10 million per full Nobel Prize.

4. It was awarded every year since 1901.

5. 1984 César Milstein: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies".

1947 Bernardo AlbertoHoussay: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel: The Nobel Peace Prize. He has devoted many years of his life to the cause of human rights in Argentina and the whole of Latin America. He is an untiring and consistent champion of the principle ofnonviolence in the struggle for social and political liberty.

1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas: The Nobel Peace Prize. His role: Foreign Minister, President of the Assembly of the League of Nations, Mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia. The prize was given for his negotiations.

6. 1995 Mario J. Molina: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry. "for his work in atmospheric chemistry, particularlyconcerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

1980 Baruj Benacerraf: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. "for his discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

1960 Peter Brian Medawar: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

2010 Mario Vargas Llosa:...
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