Passive voice

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Passive Voice

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action.
Form of Passive
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle
Example: A letter was written. When rewriting activesentences in passive voice, note the following:
• the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
• the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
• thesubject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)
Forming tenses of Passive Verbs
The passive voice always consists of two parts: a form of the verb to be +past participle of the main verb.
Subject Verb Complement
Simple present Mary helps the boy.
The boy is helped by Mary.

Present progressive Mary is helping the boy.
The boy is being helpedby Mary.

Present perfect Mary has helped the boy.
The boy has been helped by Mary.

Simple past Mary helped the boy.
The boy was helped by Mary.

Past progressive Mary was helpingthe boy.
The boy was being helped by Mary.

Past perfect Mary had helped the boy.
The boy had been helped by Mary.

Simple future Mary will help the boy.
The boy will be helped byMary.

Be going to Mary is going to help the boy.
The boy is going to be helped by Mary.

Future perfect Mary will have helped the boy.
The boy will have been helped by Mary.

Modals andPhrasal Modals

THE PASSIVE FORM
Subject Model Be Past participle Complement / -
Tom will be invited to the picnic.
The window can’t be opened
Children should be taught to respect their elders.May I be excused from class?
This book had better be returned to the library before Friday.
This letter ought to be sent before June 1st.
Mary has to be told about our change in plans.
Fred issupposed to be told about the meeting.

THE PAST-PASSIVE FORM
Subject Modal Have been Past participle Complement / -
The letter should have been sent last week.
This house must have been...
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