1)- is not a real science: is that plitical science is not a scientific in comparison with real natural and applied
sciences. Thomas Kuhn's, this view posits that there is genreal agreement pn the four key elements that provide
organization and direction within a fully developed science, *central concepts, whichidentify and name crucial phenomena.
*Theories*, which are sets of systematically related generalizations that provide explanations and predictions about the
linkages between certain concepts. *rules of interpretation*, which indicate the methods that will establish whether the
explanations and predictions posited by the theory are right or not. *list of issue*
2)- its subject matter defiesgeneralization: its imposible develop a science of politics because of the subject matter.
political word is far too complex and unpredictable for systematic generalizations. Politics is based on the actions and
interactions of many individuals, groups, and even countries.
3)-its scientists cannot be objective: politics cannot be objective in the way assumed by the scientific method. the issueschosen for study and the manner in which variables are defined, measured and analyzed are all powerfully influenced by the
analyst's social reallity. no person can be totally objective abd unbiased in the way he tries to analyze political phenomena
4)- its practice diverts attention from normative questions: clasical political theoriest have insted that the ultimate aim
of political analysis isto discover the highest good attainable by action. political analysis is a noble endeavour because
its helps determine what government and individual should do so that value goals (democratic politics, a good life)
can be achieved.
which autorithy have you relied on most extensively as a source of you knowledge about politics? what is the biggest shortcoming
of this source?
generalauthority source becaus has substantial influence on a large proportion of people in a society. general authorities are
particularly powerful in providing normative knowledge. it can be extremely difficult to decide how to judge political issue
and in such case, it can be helpful to find a widely accepted authority for guidance.
for example in contemporary China the authoritative pronuncements of aperson, Mao Zedong established the contemporary
political rights of woman. The role of woman in China was defined by the religious traditions of confucianism, most woman were
essentially the property of men, and they few political rights. as part of Chairman Mao's effort to transform Confucian
tradition, he garanted woman full equality under the law, and woman were encouraged to participateactively in all aspects of political
life. General authorities are especually evident as a basis for normative political knowledge.
there are fundamental problems with using authority as a way of knowing. this should be most obvious with specific authorities. you might
think that you parents, or best teacher has the correct view on an important political issue, but few of the other 6.6 billionpeople in the world have any confidence in this source of your political knowledge, and although every one knows that X is
true there is no guarantee that every one is correct.
in short it is common and perhaps inevitable, for authority source to offer inconsistent or conflicting knowledge claims
about the political world. It is extremely difficult to differentiate between alternativeauthorities or even establish widespred
agreement on precisely what political knowledge a particular authority source provides
*what is the most important question that political science should attempt to answer? what might prevent political scientist
from answering this question adequately?
According To Max Wber: scientific method is useful for describing and categorizing political and social...