Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it playedan active role during the Age of Discovery. In the 1990s and 2000s, Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in 1956 in Lisbon.Architecture
Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline, also known as Portuguese late Gothic, a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of thefirst decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the Portuguese Age of Discovery. In Portugal Tomás Taveira is also noteworthy, particularly due to stadiumdesign.
Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. In the 1950s, Cinema Novo, (literally "New Cinema") sprang up as a movementconcerned with showing realism in film, in the vein of Italian Neorealism and the French New Wave. Directors Manoel de Oliveira and João César Monteiro have gained Portuguese cinema internationalattention.
Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text and song. Until 1350, the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence tomost of the Iberian Peninsula. Gil Vicente (ca. 1465 – ca. 1536), was one of the founders of both Portuguese and Spanish dramatic traditions.
Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic andcontemporary styles, as exemplified by Fernando Pessoa (1888–1935).
Portuguese cuisine is diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod (bacalhau in Portuguese), for which there arehundreds of recipes. There are more than enough bacalhau dishes for each day of the year. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada, a potato-based stew that can be made from...