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The Roman World

Etruscan and Roman Art: A. Etruscan Domination 700 - 510 BC B. Roman Republic Period 510 – 27 BC C. Imperial Period 27 BC – 400 AD E. Decline of Western Roman Empire 400 - 476

Etruscan Culture 700 – 510
• • • • • Arrival of Etruscans in northern Italy 1200 – 700 BC Greek derived language and religion Urban civilization established in fortified hilltop cities.Controlled northern and central Italy There was no Etruscan nation or kingdom; cities coexisted (this made them easy to be conquered). • Their art showed a strong Greek influence, but had many unique characteristics. • Foundation of Rome in 753 BC

This is a cemetery at the ancient Etruscan city of Cerveteri, c. 500 BC. What do you think of these tombs?

Etruscan tomb and SarcophagusSimilar to the Egyptians, the Etruscans put much care into preparing for death. The reclining couple is dining. The Greeks were shocked by the relative freedom women enjoyed in Etruscan Society (Greeks didn’t eat with their wives, for example).

She-Wolf of the Capitol, c. 500 BC. Bronze. It commemorates the foundation of Rome in 753.

The Republican Period
• Established in 510 BC. • Citizenselected representatives to run the government. • The recent invention of concrete or cement was widely brought into use . • Conquered Greece in 146 BC. • Architecture assimilated the Greek styles. • Known for many great advances in painting, such as perspective and other forms of illusionism.

Roman Republic 510 – 27 BC

The Roman Empire. 27 BC – 476 AD
• Augustus (formerly Octavian Caesar)became the first Emperor in 27 BC. • Pax Romana: 27 BC – 180 AD. Peace prevailed within the empire. • Significant expansion of its territories. • Crucifixion of Jesus (c. 33 AD) and persecution of Christians. • Destruction of Pompeii – 79 AD. • Constantine recognizes Christianity in 325 AD. • Division of the Empire: Eastern and Western. • Fall of the Western Empire in 476 AD.

Roman PaintingPainting from Villa of Misteries, Pompeii

•The artist of this wall painting demonstrated a knowledge of linear perspective- in which the lines recede to a vanishing point. •This Painting uses an architectural style. Notice the architectural elements. •Many paintings were only uncovered within the past two centuries.

•Roman Republic: 50-40 B.C.

Linear perspective
Technique for painting,in which all the lines recede to a vanishing point. To achieve an Illusion of a three-dimensional space.

•In these slides, atmospheric perspective is used.

•Depth is indicated by making the objects farther in the background blurry, similar to our vision.
•The top slide is titled Odysseus in the Underworld, 50-40 B.C. •The bottom is called Gardenscape, Roman Republic: 30-20B.C.

Atmospheric perspective Colors in the background get blurry, while the foreground has all the details.

Villa of Mysteries, Roman Republic c. 50 BC

Architectural style

First Style wall painting in the fauces of the Samnite House, Herculaneum, Italy, late second century BCE.

Roman Portraiture
• The style of Portraiture changed significantly. • These changes were based onthe values and political events of the time. • The portraits were often used as propaganda for the people. • Before newspapers and T.V., a statue was often the best way for the leaders to cultivate their image. • By looking at the portraits, we have a small window into the world of the Romans. • How do leaders present themselves today?

Roman Republic
•Here we have the bust (the head andshoulders) of a Roman leader During the Republic.

•Because the Romans didn’t believe in the body as much as the Greeks, they often felt a bust alone could convey a person’s identity.
•During the Republic, age was very important to convey wisdom.

•This person is serious, experienced, and determined. •Compare this to the idealized Egyptian and Greek portraits.

Augustus of Primaporta, c. 20 BC....
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