FERGANCHICK-NEUFANG, Julia K. (Ed.) (1994) Section One: Reading and Critical Thinking. In Rhetoric of Academic Writing, A Student’s Handbook for Composition. U.S.A.: Simon & Schuster; p. 3-8.
Reading + Writing Critically = Thinking Critically
Writing critically * Making distinctions Reading critically * Knowing how to analyze distinctions
*Developing interpretations * Knowing how to analyze interpretations
* Rendering conclusions * Learning to exercise reason and judgment
Step 1: Understand ( know about topic /have schemata / have context: @ ideas @ terms @ rhetoric)
Reading for understanding find out “what happens”
Understand new material:
a.identify b. question unknown c. predict meaning d. testpredictions e. consult for confirmation / info.
Step 2: Read critically. There are 3 (three) Critical Reading Strategies : A. Previewing B. Responding
A.PREVIEWING: Get general sense (scan text)
Scanning questions: 1st layer: title / subtitle / table of contents / subject / author / information in time
Skimming questions: 2nd layer: More detailed level:^ coverage }
^ scope } Info. Usefulness – Reading purpose
^ treatment }
B. RESPONDING: Evaluate: √ ideas
√ coherenceInterpret through writing: Reading journal (date, author, title), summaries, notes on key passages, speculations, questions, answers, ideas for further research, connections to other readings orevents.
Kinds of texts (how to respond):
* Informational: Summarize ideas
* Argumentative: Examine claims and supportive evidence
* Literary: Focus on language features
Converse with thetext:
* Go beyond underlining. √ Free write
* Make notes √ Annotate (write in the margins / post-it notes)
* Comment √ Cross-reference (identify patterns and relations...