MARJOLEIN E.J. TERPSTRA1,2, RENGER H. JELLEMA3, ANKE M. JANSSEN1,4, RENÉ A. DE WIJK4, JON F. PRINZ3 and ERIK VAN DER LINDEN2,5
1 Top Institute Food and Nutrition PO Box 557, Wageningen, the Netherlands 2 Food Physics Group Wageningen University and Research Centre PO Box 8129, 6700 EV,Wageningen, the Netherlands 3 TNO Quality of Life PO Box 360, Zeist, the Netherlands 4
Centre for Innovative Consumer Studies Wageningen University and Research Centre PO Box 17, Wageningen, the Netherlands
Accepted for Publication October 24, 2008
ABSTRACT Commercial and model mayonnaises varying in fat content and type and amount of thickener were characterized by sensory analysis, rheologicalmeasurements and novel instrumental measurements covering other physicochemical properties and/or reﬂecting changes of food properties during oral processing. Predictions of texture attributes by rheological measurements were analyzed and compared with predictions by rheological measurements combined with novel measurements. Most of the texture attributes were predicted well by rheological parametersalone. Parameters from other instrumental measurements played a small complementary role, except in the predictions of most of the afterfeel attributes. Most important were rheometry at large deformation and in the nonlinear regime of the dynamic stress sweep and two novel measurements reﬂecting the effect of saliva: turbidity of rinse water and viscosity with added saliva. Tan d at 500% strain,reﬂecting the
Corresponding author. TEL: +31-317-485515; FAX: +31-317-483669; EMAIL: erik.vanderlinden@ wur.nl Journal of Texture Studies 40 (2009) 82–108. © 2009, The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PREDICTION OF TEXTURE PERCEPTION OF MAYONNAISES
ﬂuid-like character of the samples during high-strain dynamic ﬂow, relates best to creaminessand other texture attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This article describes how and how well the texture attributes of mayonnaises can be predicted from rheological and novel instrumental measurements. It shows that many texture attributes can be successfully predicted by bulk rheological properties alone, but that for some the quality of the predictions increases slightly when parameters fromother instrumental measurements, such as those from turbidity measurements, those from viscosity measurements in the structure breakdown cell with saliva, or those from friction measurements, are added. These results are relevant not only to those investigating the mechanisms involved in the oral perception of texture in semisolids but also to those who want to perform quick screening of new sampleswithout the use of time-consuming and expensive sensory panels. Simulations can be performed using the models to predict how texture attributes are inﬂuenced by changes in the rheological characteristics of a product. The results also identify rheological measurements and novel instrumental measurements relevant for texture attributes of mayonnaise. This knowledge may help to improve the efﬁciencyof product development in industry. KEYWORDS Creaminess, friction, instrumental, mayonnaise, perception, rheometry, saliva, sensory, texture, turbidity INTRODUCTION The physicochemical origins of oral texture perception of semisolid foods have received increasing attention in the past decades (Stanley and Taylor 1993; Guinard and Mazzucchelli 1996; Wilkinson et al. 2000; van Vliet 2002). However,the exact mechanisms underlying sensations such as creaminess, fattiness, melting and thickness are still not fully understood. Most studies focus on correlating texture attributes (i.e., sensations) to physicochemical properties, considering primarily bulk rheological properties. Although signiﬁcant correlations are reported, it appears to be impossible to identify a texture attribute with only...