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• Lexis describes objects, actions, and qualities (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs)

• Grammar gives you the general and main focus about a text. It also indicates who does whatto whom, why, where, when, how, etc. Its main function is to indicate the relation between the different objects.

• Halliday affirmed that lexis begins where grammar ends. Newmark,however, believes that they partly overlap.

• As translators, we are interested in grammar only as a transmitter of meaning. Therefore, structuralist grammar and the works of Saussureand Chomsky are of little interest to us. Since their approaches exclude meaning. Nida’s application of transformational grammar, however, clarifies the subtleties of English in aninsightful way.

• Case grammar: It is a method of analyzing a sentence, a clause or a verbless compound in a manner that demonstrates the central position of the verb or the word that hascentral force within the word sequence. It centers upon the relationship between the verbs and its satellites or partners. Case grammar’s function is only to sensitize the translator tothese missing gaps.

• The verb is the central element in a clause, it has a directive role in allotting emphasis (communicative dynamism) to the most important component in a sentence.Exam question: If we as translators are interested in grammar only as a transmitter of meaning, why do we need to know about grammar and in what way it helps us?

The following isa list of how knowledge of some aspects of case grammar (or valency theory) may be useful to the translator and therefore constitutes a part of translation theory.

1) Thetranslation of missing verbs (verbal force)

In the case of verbless sentences, the translator has a wide semantic choice if he wishes to supply a verb, since syntactically the source...
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