Tecnicas persuasivas

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Bandwagon
 
Techniques > Propaganda > Bandwagon
Method | Example | Discussion | See also
 
Method
Make it appear that many people have joined the cause already, and that they are having lots of fun or getting significant advantage.
Show that those who join early will get the better prizes, such as positions of authority or other advantages.
Link it to morality and values, showingthat those who join sooner are more moral and pretty much better people all around.
Make a loud noise. Use bright colors. Play a fanfare. Become impossible to miss. Be in-your-face until they join up.
Example
A political party holds a rally with much flag-waving and razz-a-ma-tazz.
A new religious group ensures all of its members attend services and become active participants in recruiting newmembers.
Discussion
The Bandwagon uses social evidence to legitimize itself and become attractive. It plays heavily on the need for belonging, making the group a desirable place to be. It may also use the scarcity principle, showing that it is better to join sooner or later.
The term 'bandwagon' came from the Temperance movement, where an open wagon would literally have a band on it and drivearound town picking up drunks who would symbolically 'get on the wagon' of alcohol-free (and religious) living.

Card-stacking
 

Method
In 'card-stacking', deliberate action is taken to bias an argument, with opposing evidence being buried or discredited, whilst the case for one's own position is exaggerated at every opportunity. Thus the testimonial of supporters is used, but not that ofopponents.
Coincidences and serendipity may be artificially created, making deliberate action seem like random occurrence. Things 'just seem to happen' whilst you are 'in town'.
Example
A politician just happens to be in town when a new school is opening - so they just drop in, hi-jacking the press for their own means.
During election periods, political parties will often gag their loosecannons, who might open their mouths and say the wrong things.
A minister of a new church sect sets up in a poor area, feeds people who will listen, tells them of how the poor will be saved, and so on.
Discussion
Card-stacking makes significant use of the evidence principle, whereby we find evidence to be particularly persuasive.
Card stacking, particularly with testimonials, works when we confusereal statistics with availability, leading us to assume that just because there appears to be overwhelming support from other people, then this is a representative sample of the whole population.
Advertising makes great use card-stacking, including repeated adverts that seek to batter their audiences into submission.
The term 'card-stacking' comes from the world of gambling, where accomplishedplayers will stack the deck in their favor, even as they are shuffling the card!

Character assassination
 
Techniques > Propaganda > Character assassination
Method | Example | Discussion | See also
 
Method
Attack the person, showing them to be bad and unworthy. Any of the 'four Ds' below may be used (as well as additional methods):
* Discredit them, showing their arguments anddecisions are weak and they are incapable in their work.
* Use defamation, damaging the good reputation and name of others.
* Demonize them, turning them into bad people that everyone hates, such that anything they do will be considered bad.
* Dehumanize them, treating them as a 'thing' and framing them as non-human with negligible values.
Example
George W. Bush, former US Presidentwas demonized over his cavalier attitude towards warfare.
Arthur Scargill, a trade union leader, was discredited by Margaret Thatcher's tactics during the 1980s miner's strikes where the strikes failed to have any serious economic effect. She was then able to close most mines without further protest.
Immigrant populations are often dehumanized by right-wing nationalist groups who stereotype by...
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